For instance the trying to get an order of law to 'lock up terrorists? We did not do it for the Irish terrorists over 30 years, so what is the difference now. Is it the slippery slope of them and us? I was wondering how and why you got started. I am doing a project on the triumph of public knowledge about the holocaust and wondered what reasons people had for starting up their public awareness campaigns.
Thank you for the great info on your site. I will use pictures in my project. Emma Downing, 6th grade, Alpine, Texas emma joyced yahoo. Elsa Schneider,born Alexander,in Danzig Tour assistance would be gratefully received. Thank tou in advance' Sincerely. The Germans did not keep names and addresses of those who were executed immediately after arrival at the major concentration camps.
They were gassed within 4 hours after arrival and no records were kept. Detainees who were admitted to the camps had their personal details recorded. Some were photographed and most were given I. D tattoo numbers on their forearms. An incomplete record of camp prisoners and victims traced to date is held at The Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum in Israel. The Yas Vashem website contains details of those traced. Reply to Matilda who asks for a list of all the concentration camps. There was over camps, most were labour camps - providing slave labourers to local business concerns.
You then had civilian detention camps like Dachau, Mauthausen and Buchenwald. One needs to remember that the ghettos were walled prisons built inside major cities. Belzec and Treblinka were the worst of all the major camps to be sent to, and in a perverse way Auschwitz the best, this was because there was a chance of being sent for forced labour elsewhere. There is a list of all the camps and their locations, a search engine might give you all the names.
Dr S Ellis drse1 aol. We tend to forget the lessons that historians could teach. Keep up the work and the information. History AP teacher recommended it!! He said come look at it! Cheena Maria Cha90Sbbabe08 aol. Holocaust Survivor and Kibbutz Mother http: Its perfect for my project! I mean, those guys must have been productive!
Draftspeople to forge plans for the buildings, chemists to decide how the Nazis would have done the killing, authors to write fake diaries of the Sonderkommando and bury them at Auschwitz to remain undiscovered for decades They literally had to forge the entire workings of a small but significant part of the German government for four or five years. Right down to the endless pages detailing which military groups took which positions and how many Jews they killed, rows and rows of small numbers, tabulated, formulated.
They must have intercepted the actual routes that the Einsatzgruppen took, figured out which prisoners they took, forged documents saying that they'd executed all the Jews, and then inserted the forgeries into the appropriate places. That's a lot of work. Hundreds of Einsatzgruppen reports to forge. And that's just the Einsatzgruppen, that's just a million or so murders to report. Multiply that times ten, that's the scale we're talking. The above parody of how much effort and cooperation documenting and fabricating a Holocaust hoax would involve is ironic, as the true weakness of the Holocaust myth is the tremendous amount of manpower and resources Germany would have had to devote to the extermination of over 10 million civilians.
Manpower and resources previously assigned to the war effort. What revisionist calls the Holocaust a hoax? The Holocaust has become a time in history aggrandized for monetary and political gain. An event now fortified by exaggerations and lies. An monolithic urban legend in progress supported by many hundreds of outrageous individual urban legends. There was a Holocaust It did happen. But not as portrayed by Jamie McCarthy and others who now profit from it. Michael January 12, Great site and remarkable work. The article I was reading mentioned that in David Irving [A Revisionist] found in the British Record Office a long forgotten pre-trial statment by a Auschwitz Camp Official called Aumeier [who was extradited to Poland to stand trial in the Auschwitz-Trial, he was condemned to death and executed in ] It says that Irving kept this War Criminals statement secret because its chilling disclosures ran contrary to what Irving had said, or had falsely claimed.
Eliabeth Brom bromberg aol. Your site came up almost first. I am astonished by Ha shem above that i would find a man with the same name standing for truth in this dark world. Bless you my brother and friend. I hope to meet you some time and in the meantime Richard J Green yosephrepents hotmail.
Rightly or wrongly perhaps I thought [and I still think] that maybe their long beards, their black garb, their fur trimmed hats and outdated suits, collectively conjured up the wrong image for modern Jews living in Germany, Austria and Poland. Wrong in the sense that it didn't look right somehow to many Jews and non Jews who saw them in the street?
Some writers at the time even described them as crows or crow-like. Whats curious is that the Amish are respected and sort-of-admired by many, yet, their almost identical counterparts the Jewish Lubavitch are not. I find it a fascinating subject that the Lubavitch even today look odd and are often cold shouldered by many -especially non-Jews, but the Amish are not. The only explanation I can give is irrational anti-semitism, but whether this is correct or not, I don't know? This topic would be a good one for some school or school student to pursue. As a History teacher I will certainly be recommending this useful website to students, friends and family.
I feel such sorrow that this event, like many other evils has occured. God have mercy on the poor souls that perished. Please continue via this website, to fuel the public with infomation regarding The Holocaust. The unit can be found at: It might be of particular interest to students and teachers, who can study the material online and even download it, amend it and connect with other learners using our discussion forums, instant messaging and video conferencing.
Best wishes Laura Laura l. COM December 31, Man's inhumanity to man is graphically portrayed here. I wept just looking at the photographs of these innocent victims of an evil regime. Please God, please, do not allow such atrocities to occur again. Any person who would deny the Holocaust should be imprisoned for life.
Walter E Gray wgray40ster gmail. Mark Bourrie mbourrie yahoo. Mrs W Kolago daughter wrote a moving tribute to her mother three posts back. To attempt to understand what her mother went through as a German civilian prisoner, you need to study the history of Ravensbruck Concentration Camp, this was a mostly womens only concentration camp situated about 50 miles north of Berlin. Suffice to say that after the war a number of the guards stationed there, including several female guards, were arrested and sentenced to death for war crimes.
What people do not realise is the absolute fear these guards created in their defenceless charges minds, they were equipped with whips, clubs and guns, and thought nothing of using them. Anyone who survived Ravensbruck needs our admiration and love, Wanda Kolago is an unsung-unknown hero. Her daughter should be rightfully proud of her. December 22, Interesting and informative.
Keep up the good work. Also interested in other books about the Holocaust. I know in Gods timing satan will perish and justice will be served. Upon crossing the border between Germany and Belgium by train, she was stopped by the Belgian under suspicion of beging a german spy she spoke good German. She could'nt proceed and went back to Poland to join the Resistance. She was denounced by her landlord. After being jailed in Berlin without trial, she was sent to Ravensbruck and soon after to Auschwitz.
Just before the liberation of the camp at the end of January, she was amongst the prisonners of the Death march back to Ravenbruck. She was liberated via the intervention of the Sweddish count of Bernadote who, I believe, "bought" a contigent of women and sent then to Sweden for rehabilitation. Meanwhile, my father, a prisonner of war in Eastern Prussia, had escaped and managed to cross Europe back to Paris. After the armistice, he started to look for her and finally succeeded to locate her via the Red Cross.
They were reunited in France 7 years after having been separated by the war. My mother never recovered. Her nervous system was in shambles, she kept talking about the camp everyday for 20 years but had no recollection of doing so. A mere three days before she died of cancer, she managed to free herself from the grip of anger, guilt and despair. She said to me: Soon after, she added: She passed away in my arms, in what I believe was a state of grace. This is a tribute to her. No recognition had been granted to her in her lifetime.
She was a political prisonner, ready to die for her country. Her name had never been written on any official list of heroes. Let it be written here, for you all to see. Her name was Wanda Kolago, matricule Thank you for reading. Jacqueline Machabeis saskia1 mweb. It was sad to see that each of these small monkeys had a number prominently tatooed on there chests in one inch high blue letters. I mean no offence to Holocaust Victims but these numbers and the wire cages these creatures were kept in reminded me of a camp. It was sad to see. S Taylor-Brash BPharmacy yahoo. What we do today and in the future will help shape and define our society.
Remembering the lessons of the Holocaust and learning more about the Holocaust helps us make the choice. December 17, Thank you for this important historical account that keeps alive the memories of those who perished and hold to account those who were guilty in perpetuating this crime against humanity. It is to my highest hopes and deepest prayers that this evilness will never rise again. Denis Susigaran susigaranm yahoo. Iris chang tried, but she ended up killing herself. December 14, I saw on a webiste forum a long winded post, at least 5 A4 pages long, claiming the Jews owned all the Banks, Hollywood, the Press, the TV Studios etc, so I wrote in saying this is terrible, that I was shocked and I wanted to do a school essay on this subject.
For good measure I added that I wanted to warn the world what was going on! So I asked the poster for a breakdown of how many newspapers, banks, TV Studios and Film Production Companies they were, and how many were owned by Jews, and asked him to list them for me for my forthcoming essay. I never got a reply even though I asked to become a supporter and suggested that I was willing to send a cheque to support their work.
Maybe they saw through my sarcasm? Support them, they are disreputable liars preying on gullible fools. Sophia Dines sophiadines bizRUZ. December 10, This is an important site. I remember one of the producers of "Schindler's List" accepting his Oscar - he was a survivor, and was so grateful to have been able to tell the story and brand it on the conscience of the current generation. Thank you for the time and energy that you all put into this site. It is the most effective antidote to the false history that the likes of Irving, Smith and Weber peddle.
When confronted by factual evidence they disappear with a whimper! Barry Smith December 2, Hi I'm Jacob and i am in the current process of writing an essay for my grade 10 class. The imformation I have found is phenominal and I have learned alot. I live in Canada and I chose this topic from many, because I wanted to become more educated on the topic. I am glad to announce my mid-term mark was an 87 so i should be able to do well on this assignment. I'm glad I found this website. Amanda November 30, I am a researcher on the holocaust.
I know people that were there. What was it like? HLPF side event Mapping the gap: Transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies WECF Nederland mocht 3 projectsubsidies verlenen aan lokale groepen die werken aan de uitvoering van en bewustwording over de SDG's, de duurzame ontwikkelingsdoelen WECF's Teilnahme am Plastic, Gender en het Milieu Levenscyclus van plastic en de impact op vrouwen en mannen, van productie tot zee afval Heb jij een goed idee waarmee Nederland nog meer aan de weg kan timmeren als wandel- en fietsvriendelijk land?
Laat het ons weten en win euro! Bleiben Frauen beim Zugang zu Bildung auf der Strecke? Gender and equality are cross-cutting issues throughout the 17 goals and targets. In advance of the HLPF on Sustainable Development taking place from 9 to 18 July, the webinar is an opportunity to explore how to ensure gender and equality are at the forefront of SDG implementation Hoe staan we ervoor als het gaat om het bereiken van de Sustainable Development Goals en de Agenda?
Promotion of Healthy and Economical Agriculture and Livestock Farming With simple methods and means, agricultural cultivation methods and local livestock farming are improved and made more profitable. This project is co-financed with an existing project in Uganda: Wie steht es um unsere Gesundheit in Deutschland? Women and Gender Constituency Joint Statement On SB48 Real commitment to rights-based, gender-just solutions to climate change is imperative for the effective implementation of the Paris Agreement.
Jardiner dans la rue c'est permis! Women at European Development Days Women partners at the European Development Days The coalition and local partners of the programme Women will be present at the European Development Days in Brussels, on 5 and 6 June , on their stand number 79, to facilitate dialogues with local partners from Africa, Latin America, Asia and Caucasus, and to showcase results after 2 years of implementation. Rural Georgians look to the sun to ease energy poverty Video 6 min: Nederland in actie voor schoon water!
Goed voor Nederland, goed voor de wereld. Slow Progress but the Gender Action Plan is rolling! Read below our comments. The goal of which is to spark a menstrual revolution and increase demand for healthy, eco-friendly menstrual products. Our eight demands for an EU EDC strategy EU has the obligation to protect its people and the environment from all harm caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals Poland infringing on yet another human right while the European community watches silently UN human rights experts join feminist organisations in condemning Polish Legislation Reinforcing capacity building on waste water treatment in An Oston During a five days' workshop, the engineers Stefan Deegener and Tobias Ulbrich, have brought the expertise and experience to the villagers and decision makers of An Oston Bonn, 4 May How can observes contribute and support countries to complete the Paris Agreement Work Programme?
From Marrakesh to Marrakesh: What is eco-activism and what are its challenges?
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Vous avez jusqu'au 6 mai minuit Corporations and industrials are permitted to switch out one EDC for another that possesses the same hazardous properties. How was your PlasticFreeLent? The Rural is Political: Doe mee met onze workshop over eco-activisme in Nigeria! The 62nd Commission on the Status of Women Worldwide representatives and officials gathered at the United Nations headquarters in New York City to discuss the matters of women and sustainability De 62e Sessie van de 'Commission on the Status of Women' Gedurende 11 dagen kwamen vrouwen, mannen, staats- en regeringsfunctionarissen, lidstaten en NGO-vertegenwoordigers van over de hele wereld - waaronder WECF - bijeen om manieren te bespreken "om het leven van vrouwen en meisjes overal te verbeteren".
World Water Day! Women's Major Group side event on chemicals, gender equality and rural women Greenpeace EU Director pushes for "Friends of the Bees" behaviour at the European Commission Discussions to ban Neonicotinoids insecticides have been going on for a year at the European Commission, considering the threat they pose to bees and other major pollinators. Yet, the vote on the proposal keeps on getting delayed. Climate Change and Freedom of Assembly: Women flyer updated version Using community-based data monitoring to track gender equality realities on the ground New York: Women Coalitie lanceert website op Internationale Vrouwendag De wereldwijde Women coalitie lanceerde vandaag haar eigen website, op Internationale Vrouwendag.
Menstrual hygiene and the environment Check out our videos for the plasticfreelent campaign! This needs to be reduced. Lets turn promises into action - gender equality in the Agenda WECF en WEP Nigeria presenteren documentaire over schadelijke stoffen in afval en het effect hiervan op de gezondheid De invloed van persistente organische verontreinigende stoffen, schadelijke stoffen en afval op de gezondheid van vrouwen en mannen.
Das Training ist der erste Baustein verschiedener Qualifizierungsmodule. Water and Sanitation Safety Planning in rural Romania, Albania and Macedonia The aim of this project is to raise awareness about environmental protection and risk based management of water supply and sanitation systems, and to take action particularly in the area of water quality and sanitation in rural communities Presentation of documentary film "what has Gender got to do with Chemicals" on Nigerian tv Better energy efficiency in Moldova thanks to insulation of public buildings Local authorities and WECF partner OA Colaborare cooperate to provide public buildings with proper insulation Successful first action against algae overgrowth in the Blue Lake in Ukraine Using fish to fight the overgrowth of algae Kein Schutz vor Umwelthormonen: Nu, vier jaar later stellen wetenschappers dat deze beperkingen lang niet ver genoeg gaan.
Attacks on Environmental Women Human Rights Defenders Unacceptable This year has been the deadliest year for environmental women human rights and environmental defenders, protecting their indigenous land and resources as they face increased crackdowns, violence, threats, intimidation and murder by state and non-state actors. Agenda und SDG-Prozess. Possible cover up of leak at nuclear facility Mayak in Russia Since October this year, very high levels of radioactive Ruthenium- have been measured all over Russia and Europe.
Les solutions pour un avenir soutenable existent Press Conference Gender Just Climate Solutions Award Winners During this press conference you will be able to meet the award winners and hear about their project Historischer Schritt bei den Klimaverhandlungen in Bonn: Feministen eisen een gender rechtvaardige transitie COP23 Deze eisen bevorderen een gender rechtvaardige transitie weg van fossiele brandstoffen Une action interactive pour un Plan Action Genre robuste!
English summary of WECF publication on pesticides in surface waters in Dutch province Drenthe For our non Dutch readers we now publish an English summary of the publication about pesticide pollution in the surface waters of Drenthe Frauenmuseum Exhibition COP23 Findings of a literature study: Plastics, Gender and the Environment Lifecycle of plastics and its impacts on women and men from production to marine litter Over 20 NGOs urge European Parliament to fully implement Monsanto lobby ban One month after the European Parliament voted to ban pesticide manufacturer Monsanto from entering Parliament premises, 24 transparency and environment groups remind them to implement their decision as comprehensively and effectively as possible.
Better Lives- Less Rural Migration The aim of this project is to improve the living conditions of the rural, young population through a more sustainable agriculture, based on organic and conservation agriculture methods. Mogelijk relatie tussen medicijnvervuiling en autisme In onlangs gepubliceerd Amerikaans onderzoek in Neuroscience Letters wordt een verband gelegd tussen verontreiniging van oppervlaktewater door uitgescheiden medicijnen en autisme bij de mens.
De hoofdauteur van dit onderzoek, Gaurav Kaushik, licht tijdens de Green Pharmacy conferentie in Utrecht, op 27 oktober, zijn onderzoeksbevindingen toe Three years of activities have led to the creation of a network of experienced public organizations involved in local energy policies, with a focus on energy efficiency.
Thank you, we couldn't have made it without your incredible support and votes! Environmental toxins' influence on male fertility De stemming vond plaats op 4 oktober. September in Kiboga, Uganda. Stimmen Sie am 4. EU and European governments spend billion a year on fossil fuel subsidies A new report by the Overseas Development Institute and Climate Action Network shows that the EU and European government continue to support the fossil fuel industry Kijk verder dan fipronil en het ei Het spel met de maximale residu limiet Hormoonverstoorders hopen zich op in menselijk brein Recent wetenschappelijk onderzoek, geleid door het UMCG, heeft nu aangetoond dat hormoonverstorende stoffen zich ophopen in het menselijk brein.
EU stemming over criteria hormoonverstorende stoffen: Drents water nog steeds vervuild met bestrijdingsmiddelen Na eerder onderzoek door WECF tonen metingen van de provincie vervuiling boven de norm aan Towards the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals WECF co-organising partner Green Pharmacy Conference The environmental cycle of medicines - an incentive for innovation in the human and veterinary medicine chain Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium: Preliminary study on the added value for human exposure and effect assessment The RIVM Dutch national institute for public health and the environment published a report on the biomonitoring of substances possibly hazardous to health Biomonitoring van lood en cadmium: Verkenning naar de toegevoegde waarde voor de beoordeling van humane blootstelling en effect Rapport gepubliceerd door de RIVM over het belang van biomonitoring van stoffen die mogelijk schadelijk zijn voor de gezondheid.
Oktober geht unsere Veranstaltung in die 2. WECF's and other civil society organisations' work paid off! Het werk van WECF en andere civil society organisaties heeft haar vruchten afgeworpen! Daarom hebben de organisaties Partos en de Groene Zaak het initiatief genomen voor een publieke oproep aan de om de SDG's op te nemen in het regeerakkoord. Meer dan bedrijven en maatschappelijke organisaties hebben hieraan gehoor gegeven, waaronder WECF.
Feasibility study of gender-sensitive energy cooperatives in Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia and Moldova New report by WECF offers report offers an overview of the feasibility of gender-sensitive energy cooperatives in Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia and Moldova. Feasibility study of gender-sensitive energy cooperatives in Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia and Moldova An overview of the feasibility of gender-sensitive energy cooperatives in Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia and Moldova. In each country, existing national climate and energy policies are examined and, if existing, feed-in tariffs for renewable energy are explained.
Participation au projet d'approvisionnement en eau potable du village d'An-Oston Kirghizstan. Lessons and best practices integrating gender into the implementation of the BRS Conventions Gender Equality and Mainstreaming" Komt er ooit een verbod op hormoonverstorende stoffen? In juni zal de Europese Commissie nieuwe regelgeving rondom chemische middelen presenteren, waarin duidelijk moet worden of er strengere maatregelen komen rondom hormoonverstorende stoffen in producten.
Reducing chemicals and pollution of drinking water sources in rural communities' Eco Forum Zenica, in partnership with WECF International, Journalists for Human Rights Macedonia , Women and Development Albania and UNEP, work together on the construction and installation of EcoSan toilets, filters for waste water and composting help, in order to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and protect drinking water sources Towards improved - sustainable - sanitation for rural women, men and children National technical standards on ecosan toilets and constructed wetlands initiated by WECF for the Republic of Moldova Veel bestrijdingsmiddelen in Drents oppervlaktewater; de helft geclassificeerd als zeer gevaarlijk WECF publiceert rapport over bestrijdingsmiddelen in het oppervlaktewater in Drenthe How can we ensure that the international community remains committed to the pledges it made?
Women Media Training Toolkit If you need to know more about how to communicate your campaign to others, this Media Training Toolkit will help you. Why waste water is part of the Sustainable Development Goals? SDG6 is about ensuring adequate and sustainable water supply. One of the targets is to halve the proportion of untreated wastewater Women's Economic Empowerment in the Changing World at Work Follow the latest updates on our work at CSW61, download related publications and learn about our activities ADHD en lager IQ mogelijk gevolg schadelijke stoffen in huis Schadelijke stoffen kunnen schadelijk zijn voor de hersenontwikkeling van kinderen, zo blijkt uit het rapport No Brainer van de Britse organisatie ChemTrust Huize Aarde Huize Aarde is a non-profit consultancy in the Netherlands, founded in Integrating gender dimensions into the implementation of the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions Gender and Chemicals Prozess zu Umwelt und Gesundheit in Europa: Who will stop the destruction of trees in Kamiansk Dniprodzerzhynsk?
Ukrainian partner Voice of Nature protects the environment in the Ukrainian city of Kamiansk Compendium to develop a Water and Sanitation Safety Plan in a Rural Community 2nd completely revised edition of the compendium is out and available in English, Romanian, Macedonian, Albanian and Bulgarian Hazardous substances and wastes in Indonesia: De biogas toiletten werken! Call to implement Better Regulation principles in EU action on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals NGOs call for horizontal criteria to identify endocrine disruptors in all types of applications, not just pesticides and biocides and urge EU Commission to redesign its currently proposed EDC criteria Stem namens jouw organisatie mee in de verkiezingen van de Women's Major Group!
Een groep actieve Kirgizische vrouwen bouwt een duurzaam en eco-vriendelijk resource centrum om met kleine acties grote veranderingen te bewerkstelligen Water solidarity between Kyrgyzstan and France continues successfully Safe water and sustainable sanitation for the village An-Oston, Issyk Kul, Kyrgyzstan Active Kyrgyz women are building a sustainable and eco-friendly resource centre as little actions can make great things happening. Take part in these changes! Regional Women Workshop in Romania Gender Just Climate Solutions Award uitgereikt tijdens ceremonie op Klimaattop in Marokko "Als vrouwen oplossingen ontwerpen, slaan ze niemand over", stelde Amina Mohammed, Minister van Milieu van Nigeria tijdens de uitreikingsceremonie UN's climate conference is officially over - but there is a lot left to do!
De klimaatconferentie van de Verenigde Naties is officieel voorbij - maar er valt nog veel te doen! It honours the fundamental contribution of women in the fight against climate change and demonstrates the pertinence of integrating gender equality in all climate policies. The success story of the Khmelnytskyi Youth Development Club For the very first time in the history of Khmelnytsk, energy conservation not only became the main discussion point of local authorities and politicians, but also of its youth Barbara Hendricks und Bundeslandwirtschaftsminister Christian Schmidt Everyday there will be some report back on the highlights of the day Musical Performance today at 4.
Gender Events at COP 22 Taking responsibility for safe water and adequate sanitation in rural Romania In the frame of the annual professional water and wastewater conference EcoImpuls in Timisoara, Romania, Aquademica organized a workshop for mayors in the region. The aim was to raise awareness about the responsibilities of the mayors to safely manage water and sanitation in their rural areas. Water and Sanitation Safety Planning in rural Romania and Macedonia The aim of this project is to raise awareness about environmental protection and to take action particularly in the area of water quality and sanitation in rural communities.
This broad coalition will work to ensure that the European Union and its Member States live up to their commitments, made when signing the Agenda agreement in New York last September, to enable a sustainable future at home and abroad. We've made it - overwhelming success of our crowdfunding campaign! In the last 4 weeks we run a crowdfunding campaign to collect 4. Thanks to your great support we can now build even more! Measures against endocrine disrupting chemicals. Little Johnny Original Version. Hansel and Gretel. Little Rabbit in Your Burrow. Heave-ho, Donald Duck.
Little Rose on the Moor. Heal, Heal Bald Man's Muck. Holy, Holy Blessing. Heal, Kitten, Heal. Heigh Ho, Hitch Up the Cart. O Come, All Ye Faithful. Here You Have a Thaler. Hark What Comes from Outdoors. I am a Little Donkey. I Walk with My Lantern. I Have a Beautiful Lantern. Come Little Children. The Farmer in March. May There Always Be Sunshine.
In the Forest Stands a House. In My Little Apple. Now We Cross over the Lake. Now The Lovely Spring Begins. Here Comes the Mouse. Ring, Little Bell, Ring! Nibble, Nibble, Gnaw. A Mouse Comes Along. A Man Comes up the Stairs. A Bird Comes A-flying. Head, Shoulders, Knees and Feet. Let Us Be Happy and Lively. Quiet, Little Peter, Quiet. The Snow Falls Quietly.
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Dear Sister, Dance With Me! Lift Up Your Heads. Grind, Grind, Porridge. My Flowers are Thirsty. My Hands Have Disappeared. My Aunt from Morocco. My Finger Goes in Circles. My Hat Has Three Corners. Early in the Morning, At Six. Nicholas, Come into Our House. Ox on the Mountain. Uncle Fritz Had a Farm. Pitty, Patty Peter. Scritch, Scratch, Scritch, Scratch. Little Boat, Little Boat. Sleep, My Little Prince, Sleep. Sleep, Sleep, Fine, Sweet Boy. Sleep, Baby Sleep. Sleep, Baby, Sleep! Little Snowflake, Little White Skirt. String Bean Hansel. The Bells Never Sound Sweeter. Coin, Coin, You Must Wander.
Dance, Little Child, Dance!
Teddy Bear, Teddy Bear. Daughter of Zion, Rejoice. Puff, Puff, Puff, The Train. And Whoever Was Born in January. Good Luck and Many Blessings. What Does Santa Claus Bring? What Clothes Do Geese Wear? If I Were a Little Bird. Who Can Carry This Apple? Show Your Little Feet. Happy Birthday to You! Two Frogs Bathe in a Pond. Between Mountain and Deep Valley. Sleep, Sleep, Wish, Wish, Wish. Heal, Heal Little Gosling. I am a Little Snail. Snail Goes for a Walk Today. Snail in the House. Little Chin, Little Mouth.
Our books feature songs in the original languages, with translations into English. Many include beautiful illustrations, commentary by ordinary people, and links to recordings, videos, and sheet music. Your purchase will help us keep our site online! Visit our store. Please contribute a traditional song or rhyme from your country. Visit the Mama Lisa Book Store. Articles about the music, culture and traditions of Germany and more.
Jane Fuld wrote asking for help with a nursery hand game her German father played with the little kids in her family.
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Most of his ancestors came to the US before from near Ravensburg, Germany, [ Then you can make them with your children or students and sing the songs. Gina wrote looking for help with a hand game… My grandfather whose father was fully Italian, use to have a hand play he did with me. I don't know the full words to it but would like to know. His mother who was fully Italian died and his father remarried a fully german lady, so [ Silent Night is one of the most beloved Christmas Carols around the world.
Here you can listen to a touching rendition in both German and English. Below you can listen to a recording while reading along with the German text, followed by an English translation. You can listen to a recording of the poem below and read along with the text and English translation. Becky Haegele wrote to us on the Mama Lisa Facebook Group asking for help with a tickling rhyme her grandmother would play and recite to her. Christmas is almost here! Most are for dessert. Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in interlanguage development. Focus on form through conscious reflection.
Language Development in the Pre-school Years. Language aptitude measures in streaming, matching students with methods, and diagnosis of learning problems. Input and interaction in second language acquisition. Multilingual education in Europe: What can preschools contribute? Immersion Research and Practices. Proceedings of the University of Vaasa, Reports, Please use the following scores for all checklist-observations: Introduction It is not the speech sounds or the rules of grammar that require the most extensive learning, but the lexicon Miller One of the reasons why L2 lexical acquisition or L2 vo- cabulary learning2 was not given much attention well into the s may have been that it was not clear which research questions should be asked in connection with the L2 lexicon: Unlike L2 phonological or morpho-syntactic development, where similar developmental sequences were able to be identified for large populations of L2 learn- ers Ellis , Wode for reviews , lexical development evades the notion of de- velopmental stages and appears to be highly individual Rohde , Singleton In the past 25 years, however, not least due to new approaches such as minimalism Radford , the lexicon has no longer been viewed as a separate issue, as an iso- lated inventory of content and function words.
Rather, it has been regarded as playing a dynamic part in morpho-syntax. Due to this "new dynamic image," the lexicon has gained new ground, leading to a number of research questions in vocabulary learning Ma , Singleton Before the results of the ELIAS study are presented and discussed, some of the essen- tial issues in L1 and L2 lexical acquisition have to be addressed in order to place our study within the framework of vocabulary research. Naturalistic and classroom L2 ac- quisition will be distinguished in the following, not because there are fundamental dif- ferences between these two types of acquisition, but rather because the research ques- tions often differ depending on whether children acquire their vocabulary with or without formal teaching.
However, I do not see a substantial difference between "lexicon" and "vocabulary," especially in view of the fact that the term "L2 mental lexicon" Singleton is well established. The study of L2 lexical acquisition The task of the naturalistic L2 learner resembles the task which confronts the infant: Lexical units in the speech stream have to be isolated and connections have to be made between these units and the meanings they are intended to communicate.
The differ- ence is that the L2 learner can draw on her experience of making such connections between lexical forms and meanings in her L1 Singleton French, German and Swedish are typologically and genealogically related to the target L2 English to varying degrees, therefore, a consid- erable amount of cultural overlap can be assumed between them, so that a large num- ber of concepts that has been lexicalised in the learners' L1 can be expected to be at least similar in the L2 and to facilitate the formation of new concepts ibid.
Whereas some authors claim that there is no specific word learning mechanism and that the child acquires her lexicon in social interaction by using her theory of mind the ability to put oneself into somebody else's shoes in order to interpret his or her intentions , others assume that learners have to be constrained as to the potential meanings of words Golinkoff et al.
Markman , postulates lexical principles which are to be viewed as basic assumptions as to which referents words refer to. They limit the potentially infinite number of pos- sible referents in a concrete situation: How does a young child who hears the word dog or doggie for the very first time know that it is the dog being referred to and not the dog's fur, shape, colour, size, or the dog plus the ground it is running on etc.?
Two other lexical principles Markman posits are the taxo- nomic assumption words refer to objects of like kind; when a dog has been referred to as dog, other "objects" which have been recognised as being similar are also referred to by the same label and the mutual exclusivity assumption young learners prefer one label per object, they initially refuse synonyms Markman , Rohde Receptive L2 Lexical Knowledge 47 ticular ways" Tomasello According to this view, parents and teach- ers invite children to "attend to certain aspects of a shared social situation" ibid.
In order to then understand or learn new words in a shared social situation, the child makes use of her theory of mind see above , uses cues of joint attention e.
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In a disambiguation experiment, for example, a child is shown a banana and a whisk an object the child has never seen before and does not have a name for. The child is now asked to "show me the fendle" fendle being a nonce word. She could now proceed as follows: Note that the child does not have to assume that labels are mutually exclusive.
Rather, she has to be able to interpret the speaker's intention. In a nutshell, according to the socio-pragmatic view, the interpretation of intentions does the work of lexical princi- ples. There is no space here to discuss the debate of constraints vs. Obviously, the principles have to be overridden when parts of objects, taxonomic hierarchies, intra- as well as interlingual synonyms are acquired.
However, there is evidence that, in L2 acquisition, children revert back to the lexical principles and use them as vocabulary learning strategies, i. This has been shown in comprehension as well as produc- tion Rohde The children tested have experienced, via their L1 acquisition, that lexical principles have to be violated when the context requires it e. L2 production data from four German children's naturalistic acquisition of English in the U. The decision whether or not a word refers to a whole object had to be made on the basis of the described contexts in the diary data of the children and has to remain speculative.
This may suggest a rather "one- dimensional" lexical development; however, the use of basic level terms ascertains that the developing L2 lexicon covers a maximum of concrete individual entities in communicative situations. It has yet to be investigated whether the four children's L2 lexical acquisition is singular and has to be accounted for by their age or their specific situation. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of studies in naturalistic L2 lexical acquisition which all suggest steady vocabulary growth rates within the period of study but high variability as far as the distribution of word classes and semantic fields are concerned Broeder et al.
In order to answer this question, Chapelle proposes a four-dimensional model which includes a vocabulary size, b knowledge of word characteristics, c lexical organisation and d lexical access. Depth, on the other hand, refers to the quali- tative dimension of the lexicon and comprises the word characteristics size, knowl- edge, organisation, access, see above as well as knowledge of a word's links within a network.
I don't remember having seen this word before. I have seen this word before, but I don't know what it means. I know this word. I can use this word in a sentence: This measure, which taps both receptive and productive vocabulary, was predomi- nantly applied in classroom settings to measure learners' initial progress in word learn- ing.
The breadth-depth dichotomy relates to the knowledge of single words, however, it can also be applied to the entire lexicon characterising its structure: In naturalistic L2 acquisition, a preliminary analysis of L2 learners' object word lexicons suggests that learners first build up "flat lexicons" which heavily rely on basic level items cat, fish, car rather than hierarchical structures including super- and subordinate lexemes Rohde , see above. It remains to be seen, however, whether this is the result of an idiosyncratic lexical learning strategy employed by the four siblings analyzed or whether this could be a more universal modus operandi that initially enables naturalis- tic L2 learners to quickly refer to as many concrete objects as possible.
To what extent is it similar or different from the L1 mental lexicon? Word association studies in both L1 and L2 lexical learning have revealed three types of associative links between words: Meara argues that the L2 mental lexicon is significantly dif- ferent from that of L1 speakers but it may change when the learners' proficiency in- creases. Word association tests with L2 learners reveal more idiosyncratic responses than L1 speakers and they display a large number of clang associations.
Semantic links between L1 and L2 words English and French in this case are tenuous and easily overridden by phonological similarities Meara In contrast, Schmitt has shown that children's L1 mental lexicon is more strongly characterised by syntag- matic and clang associations, whereas paradigmatic associations increase in adoles- cents and adults. However, Wolter argues that there may be no inherent differ- ence between the L1 and L2 mental lexicons.
Rather, the structure of the L1 and L2 mental lexicon may be characterised by the degree of individual word knowledge, which is measured with the VKS see above under 2. In the same vein, Namei suggests that there is no general syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift in the L1 and L2 mental lexicon which would indicate increased knowledge for all words in the lexi- con. Instead, the mental lexicons are organised according to the stages at which words develop.
She proposes a model in which word-knowledge is structured along a contin- uum: They suggest that nouns tend to elicit paradigmatic associations whereas adjectives rather prompt a syntagmatic response. Word-knowledge continuum and main organisational features of words in the L1 and L2 mental lexicon Namei In naturalistic L2 acquisition, in contrast, the scant available data for the four children mentioned above suggest that L2 growth curves appear to peak early on within their six-month stay and then decrease gradually.
In other words, the lexicon keeps growing, however, the rate at which acquisition proceeds slows down Wode et al. In L1 acquisition the spurt is possibly due to differences in the way linguistic information is stored and processed in memory rather than a marked increase in conceptual development ibid. Number of lexical items Fig. Schematic comparison of L1 and L2 growth curves Wode et al. Neither do we know how the L2 curve would theoretically continue for these children, nor whether older L2 learn- ers would display a similar growth curve. Receptive L2 Lexical Knowledge 51 Bloom reminds us that in view of the L1 lexicon a or year old has ac- cumulated, a "real spurt" can probably be expected between the ages of 6 to 10 years rather than earlier so that the first 24 months are comparatively insignificant for lexical development.
There are as yet no studies looking at naturalistic L2 lexical acquisition over a time span of several years. The schematic comparison would suggest that the L2 growth curve steadily decreases. If this were true, there should be major differences in the vocabulary of L1 speakers and L2 speakers depending on how long the L2 learners have been acquiring their L2. There is an additional problem: We do not know whether naturalistic L2 learners all show a similar growth curve.
However, there is some evidence to suggest that an L2 lexicon is unlikely to become native-like if the onset of L2 acquisition is after age 6 cf. Long for a review. This at least indi- cates that there are limits to growth rates and, more important, to the ultimate lexical attainment of L2 learners.
As noted above, the observations for naturalistic L2 lexical acquisition have to be taken with a pinch of salt as they are based on diary and tape data that were not decid- edly elicited for lexical research questions. Further comprehensive studies on individ- ual L2 lexicons have to reveal whether other L2 learners also build up flat lexicons first or whether this is simply one of several lexical learning strategies employed by young L2 learners.
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Conversely, however, being able to produce a word does not neces- sarily require deep word knowledge. In L1 and L2 acquisition, productive vocabulary knowledge has been observed to lag behind the learners' receptive knowledge so that the three following assumptions have been formulated the studies in parentheses also reporting on evidence: As the L1 English preschool teachers were able to under- stand German, there never was the communicative need to produce the L2 — especially not amongst the children. The first lexicon tests prior to the ELIAS study were designed by the student researchers to exclusively cover nouns, verbs and adjectives that were report- edly used in the preschools Tiefenthal , Steinlen i.
In order to also cover vocabulary which is no longer exclusively preschool-specific the British Picture Vocabulary Scale II Dunn et al. The following questions will be addressed and discussed: It has naturalistic features because the L2 is spoken in everyday situations and activities and there neither is formal teaching nor a spe- cific language focus involved.
On the other hand, the L2 is only spoken by the native speaker pre- school teachers and is thus not the main ambient language. In addition, it may be argued that, due to the group structure in a preschool, situations and activities have to be arranged and organised to some extent and may thus be formal rather than naturalistic.
Do minority language children reach similar levels of L2 vocabulary and show similar progress as majority lan- guage children? The entries were examined in order to cover a wide range of language levels as well as word classes. All items were tested with the help of more than 1, subjects from more than British schools and preschools. On the basis of the test run, 14 sets with 12 cards each were created. Thus, maximally, words are tested.
Moreover, many of the test items especially in the early sets are basic level terms. Some of the test items e. Many of 7 EAL does not necessarily mean the children's L2 but can be any further language added to the L1. Nouns are not preceded by an article a, an, the as it would give a clue as to which word class is required Dunn et al. For the standardisation of the materials, 2, subjects an equal share of boys and girls from more than schools and pre- schools were involved Dunn et al.
The individual sets are allocated to age levels: The first set has been conceived for two-and-a-half to three-year old children, the second one for four- to five-year-olds etc. If there is more than one error in the basal set, however, the previous set is tested next and functions as the basal set. For L2 speakers, the first set is always the basal set irrespective of the children's age as there is no obvi- ous correlation of L2 vocabulary and age in L2 acquisition.
Testing is discontinued if 8 or more errors are made; this set then is the ceiling set. In other words, children have to score at least 5 correct answers in the sets in order to be tested on higher sets. All correct answers form the raw score, which is later transferred to a standardised score for a particular age level with the help of a conversion table Dunn et al.
Thus, it can be established whether a score correlates with a certain age group or whether it is ahead of it or lagging behind As mentioned above, the BPVS II has also been standardised for learners aged 3 to 8 with English as an additional language in Great Britain. Results showed that the EAL learners' scores were significantly lower than for the L1 group. There is also evi- dence that the difference between L1 learners and the EAL group increases with age recall our reflections on growth rates above. They had expected the largest differ- ences with the youngest children without schooling experience and smallest for the oldest age group.
However, in view of the data from naturalistic L2 acquisition re- ported above, child L2 learners show an early peaking L2 curve before growth rates gradually decrease. This may be accounted for by the communicative needs of the learners which they are able to satisfy after a relatively short time so that unless they are making a conscious effort, their lexical growth rates may strongly hinge on indi- vidual interests.
As mentioned above, after the age of 6, an L2 learner is unlikely to develop a native-like lexicon Long Unfortunately, Dunn et al. Testing usually does not exceed 10 minutes. One examiner asks the child to point to the appropriate picture when giving the respective prompt e. In this prompt, it is important to not change any word endings or embed the items into a sentence, since this may provide extra clues for the children to guess which one the target picture is.
In order to warrant the child's understanding of the task, two training sets are run with the child before starting with the first test item. While the first experimenter interacts with the child, the second observes the situation outside the child's focus and records the child's answer on the performance record sheet. If a child is either unwilling to point to a picture or does not know the appropri- ate selection although guessing is explicitly allowed , the item is counted as wrong and testing is continued with the next set card.
Testing starts with the initial set, the basal set, for every child, and is discontinued after the ceiling set in which 8 or more incorrect answers have been provided. At the time of T2, the children were between 42 and 98 months old mean: These children will be referred to as "L2 children," although in fact, for some of the children with a migration background, English may be the L3 or even the L4.
The data of 20 L1 English speaking chil- dren from a preschool in England are included in the discussions of the development of scores over time 4. They reveal whether and to what extent the scores differed from test 1 to test 2 5 to 15 months elapsed be- tween test 1 and test 2. The focus will be on the nine bilingual preschools from Bel- gium, Germany and Sweden. This difference is significant, as statistical analyses revealed.
BPVS II scores for all bilingual preschools combined and for the monolingual English pre- school preschool 10 as obtained at T1 and T2 8 A test of within subject contrasts for the bilingual preschoolers revealed significant differences for time Time: The scale is based on the normal distribution of scores which is expected for the EAL population in the UK.
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