It requires an increased quality and capacity of public administration in the sphere of regulation and control of the compliance with conditions and rules of the market environment , particularly the conditions of free competition and the elimination of monopolies, securing the quality, technological level, products free from health damaging defects and consumer protection.
An important role of public administration lies in restricting "grey" economy, in securing proper tax collection, in discerning and preventing economic crime.gistmachtakedi.ga/594.php
Public Administration in Africa : Performance and Challenges
In connection with the discharge of these and other tasks, public administration is in charge of public funds management collected from tax-payers in the form of taxes, charges and other public dues under the law and simultaneously used in their general interest , and the state-owned movable and immovable property which, after all, should also serve all citizens. The financial area is remembered in the Constitution at least in the provisions on the state budget, the final state account and on an audit carried out by the Supreme Audit Office; the regulation of the "details" - which can be, however, of far-reaching importance - is implied in ordinary laws.
On the other hand, the management of state-owned roperty is not regulated although the power of control is delegated to the Supreme Audit Office. The general legislation on the management of national property from the period before , which is a residue of the previous regime, is still in force, leaving the management of state-owned property practically in the hands of the Executive. Neither any law has been adopted in accordance with Article 11 of the Charter to stipulate which property necessary for securing the needs of the whole society, for the development of the national economy and for public interest may be owned by the State, a municipality or certain legal entities, nor any legal regulation of the management of state property has been passed which would, among other things, regulate the relationships between the legislative and the executive power in this respect so that every significant case of the disposal of state-owned property could be in accordance with the law.
Thus a modern, rationally and effectively functioning public administration is a substantial and irreplaceable prerequisite for the economic growth. Another significant function of public administration is to secure and strengthen democratic institutions and mechanisms. In this case the State creates its own mechanisms and institutions for the protection of those rights; however, they are protected against the misuse of power by the State itself and its bodies against its own citizens on the basis of international conventions. The social function of the State and public administration arises primarily from the duties of the State owed to its citizens, which correspond to their economic, social and cultural rights in accordance with the Charter, the International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights etc.
The role of the State public powers in those matters where the State also has a duty to fulfil positively or to secure such fulfilling has been a topic of permanent discussions, especially with respect to the issue of to what extent the principle of personal responsibility of each individual and the principle of human solidarity should be applied.
The issues of administrative processes, the consequences of underestimating the management of public administration, deficiencies in the field of decision-making, coordination and other functions are dealt with in Chapter 4 of this Analysis.
The evaluation of public administration depends upon the fulfilment of its tasks and functions, how it contributes to securing social tasks and aims. What is important are the results of its activities or non-activities. Next, there is a question how suitable its internal organization is for the performance of its tasks and how it supports its external effectiveness. The evaluation of the performance tasks and functions by public administration and of its social effectiveness is given little attention in the Czech Republic.
The system of control has not been comprehensive, the evaluation of public administration and its individual components is quite random, often in connection with public criticism only. Minimum political accountability, in comparison with Western democracies, is drawn even in such cases. Basic prerequisites for drawing personal liability of respective officials are missing: such as a basic definition of tasks and responsibilities, an evaluation system, the legal regulation of disciplinary liability.
A system of positive motivation for reaching the laid down tasks and targets is missing as well. The concept of administration as a tool of power still survives in a general understanding surviving from the authoritarian regime, which has maintained, on the one hand, the negative attitude of the population to public administration and, on the other hand, distorted ideas and stereotypes in the behaviour and actions of a number of politicians and officials. The following attitudes of the public and of business people to the functioning of public administration have been found out within the framework of the project:.
The relation of the Czech public to public institutions is characterized by a certain crisis of trust. The social distance between citizens and the administration is still considerable, in some cases even critical. The citizens are thus insufficiently informed of the reasons of the prepared reform of the territorial self-government and, consequently, they have not accepted it. According to the survey, more than one half of citizens are not ready to get personally involved in solving public issues. The reasons are also their stress due to the transformation and insufficiently developed dialogue of the post-November governments with the civic society, in addition to inherited behaviour stereotypes the people got used to keep silent under communism.
A certain promise for the future is represented by the latent interest in local self-government and, surprisingly, also in public administration expressed in the survey, under the condition that better institutional mediation of such participation is provided.
Public administration often fails to establish good contacts with citizens, either due to a low degree of its professionalism and impartiality, or to its attitude towards citizens. According to the survey, the mistrust of citizens in relation to the Government and ministries mostly prevails, and in some cases the disproportion is enormous. Negative experience is expressed primarily by people of productive age, with higher education, and by entrepreneurs. The majority does not have much hope in success in dealing with the authorities and enforcing their justified demands and rights.
An important task of public administration is the support of enterprise, especially of small and medium-sized enterprises. A report of the Chamber of Commerce prepared for the Analysis identifies difficulties which hamper this kind of enterprise in the legislative, taxation and financial fields.
The entrepreneurs expect concrete support from the State and from public administration in the sphere of training e. With over 20 million people on its payroll, the government continues to be the largest employer in the country. The great recession of put enormous strains on….
Edited by Meghna Sabharwal , Evan M. A state-of-the-art, one-stop resource, Public Administration in South Asia: India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan examines public administration issues and advances in the Indian subcontinent.
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Tshombe , Ernest Peprah Ababio. With contributions from leading regional scholars, Public Administration in Africa: Performance and Challenges examines the complexities of the art of governance from the unique African perspective. The editors bring together a cohesive study of the major issues and regions by taking an analytic…. Edited by Saltanat Liebert , Stephen E. Condrey , Dmitry Goncharov. Although it has been more than 20 years since Communism crumbled in Central and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, many scholars and politicians still wonder what the lifting of the Iron Curtain has really meant for these former Communist countries.
And, because these countries were largely…. By Nicolas A. By Margaret Stout. The discipline of public administration draws predominantly from political and organizational theory, but also from other social and behavioral sciences, philosophy, and even theology. This diversity results in conflicting prescriptions for the "proper" administrative role. So, how are those new to….
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But with a rapidly growing user base globally and an increasing reliance on the Internet, digital tools are also exposing the public sector to new…. By Gerald J. The right turn in U. Taking a new look at public financial management that acknowledges the….
Chap. 2 ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Recent US economic history is rife with examples of cities and regions that have experienced significant decline. Many of those localities began to slide after decades, even generations, of feeling immune to economic disaster. Boeing and Kodak, the steel industry in Pittsburg, and the automotive…. By Jamil Jreisat. Globalization, rapidly evolving communication and information technology, and the spread of democracy across the world are reshaping public organizations and changing governance. Yet, graduate students and public administration academics have limited resources with which to develop a real-world….
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Written by leading experts, Public Administration in East Asia: Mainland China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan examines the inner workings of governments in East Asia, in particular its public administration and related public policy processes. It focuses on the apparatus of government — the agencies,…. Edited by Christopher M Shea , G. David Garson.
Delivering IT projects on time and within budget, while maintaining privacy, security, and accountability, remains one of the major public challenges of our time. In the four short years since the publication of the second edition of the Handbook of Public Information Systems, the field of public…. Edited by Ali Farazmand. Bureaucracy is an age-old form of government that has survived since ancient times; it has provided order and persisted with durability, dependability, and stability.
The popularity of the first edition of this book, entitled Handbook of Bureaucracy, is testimony to the endurance of bureaucratic…. By Patria de Lancer Julnes. Expectations for performance management systems continue to grow in the public sector. Yet few administrators know how to effectively implement and sustain these systems. Performance-Based Management Systems: Effective Implementation and Maintenance supports practical efforts to build and maintain…. Edited by Frederic Bogui. Demystifying a growing and dynamic field, Handbook of Governmental Accounting reflects the increasing complexity of this area, enabling readers to grasp the intricate accounting that is involved as government expenditures multiply and governments engage in progressively complex transactions.
By Donijo Robbins. Managers and administrators in the public-policy and nonprofit sectors rely heavily on analytical skills to quickly pore through a massive amount of research. Edited by Khi V. Since the s, government at all levels is under increasing pressure to do more with less. However, despite the U. By Jun Peng. Intense media coverage of the public pension funding crisis continues to fuel heightened awareness in and debate over public pension benefits.
It is important that practitioners, researchers,…. Meek , Ulf Zimmermann. Initiated and governed by property or business owners under the authorization of state and local governments, business improvement districts BIDs have received a very mixed reception. To some, they are innovative examples of self-governance and public-private partnerships; to others, they are yet…. Some NPM reforms used private sector companies to deliver what were formerly public services. NPM advocates in some countries worked to remove "collective agreements [in favour of] NPM advocates focus on using approaches from the private sector — the corporate or business world—which can be successfully applied in the public sector and in a public administration context.
NPM approaches have been used to reform the public sector, its policies and its programs. NPM advocates claim that it is a more efficient and effective means of attaining the same outcome. In NPM, citizens are viewed as "customers" and public servants are viewed as public managers. NPM tries to realign the relationship between public service managers and their political superiors by making a parallel relationship between the two. Under NPM, public managers have incentive-based motivation such as pay-for-performance, and clear performance targets are often set, which are assessed by using performance evaluations.
As well, managers in an NPM paradigm may have greater discretion and freedom as to how they go about achieving the goals set for them. This NPM approach is contrasted with the traditional public administration model, in which institutional decision-making, policy-making and public service delivery is guided by regulations, legislation and administrative procedures.
NPM reforms use approaches such as disaggregation, customer satisfaction initiatives, customer service efforts, applying an entrepreneurial spirit to public service, and introducing innovations. The NPM system allows "the expert manager to have a greater discretion". Thatcher's successor, John Major , kept public management policy on the agenda of the Conservative government, leading to the implementation of the Next Steps Initiative.
During this timeframe public management became an active area of policy-making in numerous other countries, notably in New Zealand, Australia, and Sweden. Early policy actions of the Clinton administration included launching the National Partnership and signing into law the Government Performance and Results Act. Currently there are few indications that public management issues will vanish from governmental policy agendas. A recent study showed that in Italy, municipal directors are aware of a public administration now being oriented toward new public management where they are assessed according to the results they produce.
Those problems as well as their solutions were formulated within the policy-making process. The agenda-setting process has been heavily influenced by electoral commitments to improve macro- economic performance and to contain growth in the public sector, as well as by a growing perception of public bureaucracies as being inefficient.
The alternative-generation process has been heavily influenced by ideas coming from economics and from various quarters within the field of management. Although the origins of NPM came from Westernized countries it expanded to a variety of other countries in the s. Before the s, NPM was largely associated to an idea utilized by developed countries that are particularly Anglo-Saxon.
However the s have seen countries in Africa, Asia and other countries looking into using this method. In Africa, downsizing and decrease of user fees have been widely introduced. These autonomous agencies within the public sectors have been established in these areas. Performance contracting became a common policy in crisis states worldwide.
Contracting out of this magnitude can be used to do things such as waste management, cleaning, laundry, catering and road maintenance. NPM was accepted as the "gold standard for administrative reform"  in the s. The idea for using this method for government reform was that if the government guided private-sector principles were used rather than rigid hierarchical bureaucracy, it would work more efficiently.
NPM promotes a shift from bureaucratic administration to business-like professional management. NPM was cited as the solution for management ills in various organizational context and policy making in education and health care reform.
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