So help me, God. Besides actively avoiding the boys in blue, the women did all they could to help their boys in gray. They spent long hours making bows, neckties, pincushions, etc. The money, along with coats and blankets, was smuggled south to Richmond for the good of the Confederacy. The closest the clandestine Confederate women came to being high profile was when they pulled off a major heist and robbed Christ Church of its commemorative George Washington plaque.
The opportunity arose when local families raised a stink about Union soldiers sitting on their pew cusions in the church. Members of the Knights supervised the removal of these cushions, and in the process, also removed the plaque. What became of the Knights after the end of the Civil War? Some, including the History Channel, would have you believe that the larger organization went underground in preparation for a second Civil War.
But the Alexandria branch faded away without fanfare, presumably never becoming publically known. The Knights of the Golden Circle or K. These clubs were inspired by the philosophies of John C. Calhoun — Calhoun had an illustrious political career serving as a congressman from his home state of South Carolina, a state legislator, vice president under the administrations of both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, and a U.
In addition to the Southern Rights Clubs, which advocated the re-establishment of the African slave-trade, some of the inspiration for the Knights may have come from a little-known secret organization called the Order of the Lone Star, founded in , which helped orchestrate the successful Texas Revolution resulting in Texas independence from Mexico in Even before that, the K. The Knights of the Golden Circle was reorganized in Lexington, Kentucky, on July 4, , by five men, whose names have been lost to history, when Virginia-born Gen.
George W. Bickley — requested they come together.
Strong evidence suggests that Albert Pike — was the genius behind the influence and power of the Masonic-influenced K. During his lifetime, Boston-born Pike was an author, educator, lawyer, Confederate brigadier general, newspaper editor, poet, and a Thirty-third Degree Mason. From its earliest roots in the Southern Rights Clubs in , the Knights of the Golden Circle was to become the most powerful secret and subversive organization in the history of the United States with members in every state and territory before the end of the Civil War.
The primary economic and political goal of this organization was to create a prosperous, slave-holding Southern Empire extending in the shape of a circle from their proposed capital at Havana, Cuba, through the southern states of the United States, Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America. The plan also called for the acquisition of Mexico which was then to be divided into fifteen new slave-holding states which would shift the balance of power in Congress in favor of slavery.
Facing the Gulf of Mexico, these new states would form a large crescent. The robust economy the KGC hoped to create would be fueled by cotton, sugar, tobacco, rice, coffee, indigo, and mining. These seven industries would employ slave labor. In early newspapers across the country reported that the Knights of the Golden Circle were recruiting troops in numerous cities to send to Brownsville, Texas, for the planned invasion of Mexico. History is unclear about what went wrong with this invasion, but most historians agree that the well-laid plans never materialized and the invasion never happened.
They called off their plans for Mexico and started preparing for war with the North. When tensions between the North and South were at a breaking point and the Civil War had not yet begun, the Knights of the Golden Circle held their convention in Raleigh, North Carolina, from May 7—11, Bickley, as president of the K.
The K. The Foreign Guards class was the K. The second division or class was also divided into two classes which were the Foreign and Home Corps. The second class of this degree was the Home Corps. Their job was to advise and to forward money, arms, ammunition, and other necessary provisions needed by the organization and its army and to send recruits as rapidly as possible.
The two classes of the third division or degree were the Foreign and Home Councils. One little-known historical fact that is presented in the records from the K. Texas was home for at least thirty-two K. The South began to secede from the Union in January , and in February of that year, seven seceding states ratified the Confederate Constitution and named Jefferson Davis as provisional president. The Knights of the Golden Circle became the first and most powerful ally of the newly-created Confederate States of America. Before the Civil War officially started on April 12, , when shots were fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, and before Texas had held its election on the secession referendum on February 23, , Texas volunteer forces, which included K.
Ben McCulloch, forced the surrender of the federal arsenal at San Antonio that was under the command of Bvt. David E. Twiggs on February 15, Knights of the Golden Circle who were involved in this mission included Capt. Trevanion Teel, Sgt. Williams, John Robert Baylor, and Sgt. Morgan Wolfe Merrick. Following this quick victory, volunteers who were mostly from K. Brady of New York in In this journal, Surratt goes into great detail when describing how he was introduced to the K.
Surratt describes the elaborate and secret induction ceremony and its rituals and tells that cabinet members, congressmen, judges, actors, and other politicians were in attendance. After trying unsuccessfully to peacefully resolve the conflicts between North and South, the Knights of the Golden Circle threw its full support behind the newly-created Confederate States of America and added its trained military men to the Confederate States Army.
Several Confederate military groups during the Civil War were composed either totally or in large part of members of the Knights of the Golden Circle. One notable example of K. John Robert Baylor and Gen. Henry Hopkins Sibley. Watie was also in the K. The Missouri-based band was formed in December by William Clark Quantrill and originally consisted of only ten men who were determined to right the wrongs done to Missourians by Union occupational soldiers. Some of the major engagements this deadly guerrilla force participated in included the Lawrence, Kansas, raid on August 21, , the battle near Baxter Springs, Kansas, in October , and two battles at and near Centralia in Missouri in September of The Confederate plan was to use the great numbers of Knights in the Northern states to foster a revolution that would spread across Indiana, Illinois, New York, Ohio, and any other state in the North where it was feasible.
The Baker-Turner Papers, part of the U. James D. Horan, the first person ever allowed access to the U. His work used these previously-sealed documents and information gathered by numerous investigators, including the private papers of Capt. Thomas H. Hines, C.
The Knights of the Golden Circle
Nowhere in the country was this influence more apparent than in the state of Missouri where K. A newspaper article from the Daily Times of Leavenworth, Kansas, July 29, , serves as a good example in their interview with a member of the Paw Paw named Andrew E. Smith said:. I am a member of the Knights of the Golden Circle. I joined them at Platte City, and was sworn in by David Jenkins of that place. All of the Pawpaw militia, so far as I know, belong to them…. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Most historians accept this date of surrender as the official end of the Civil War. The Knights of the Golden Circle as an organization, however, continued to work to achieve their goals, which included a prosperous South, for many decades after the Civil War.
What had been a secret society adapted to changing conditions and, after the war, became even more secretive than ever before. In October U. Judge Advocate Joseph Holt submitted a detailed warning to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton about the dangers posed by the Knights of the Golden Circle that was, by that time, operating under various aliases. Some K. Joseph O. Shelby to Mexico. Some soldiers returned to their homes, while others relocated to more remote frontier areas like West Texas where they could help build towns and cities that conformed to their ideals.
The Knights of the Golden Circle, according to most authorities, ceased its operations in for two primary reasons. Perrine, Publisher, Donald S. Dion Haco, ed. Brady, Publisher, Wolfinger shares with readers two real stories that served as the inspiration for the events in the Mercy Street Season Finale. The Mansion House affair— The town was rife yesterday with rumors of a diabolical attempt to blow up the United States hospital at the Mansion House…. A barrel had been secreted in the cellar filled with powder and projectiles and a fuse was found extending from there to the stable.
In proximity to the combustibles, Lucifer matches and Chinese crackers had been plentifully distributed, and the fuse end at the stable had actually been ignited. But this fact was fortunately discovered by the guard and the progress of the slow fire extinguished. But for this watchfulness and prompt action, not only would several hundred lives probably have been lost, but other casualties resulted.
When we stumbled on this obscure story in the Alexandria Gazette we knew we needed to incorporate some version of it in our fictional world.
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The gunpowder plot offered a perfect opportunity to create an edge-of-your-seat season 1 finale, while also weaving in two other historical stories we were interested in. In our research we came across numerous examples of the President and his wife visiting local hospitals throughout the war. According to Lincoln scholar Ronald C.
White Jr:. Lincoln often visited Union Army hospitals in and around Washington — together, separately or with their son Tad. Washington, which had been transformed into an armed camp in the early days of the war, had now become a gigantic hospital. White buildings and tents dotted the city. Others, such as the Douglass Hospital, had taken over former private mansions on Minnesota Row. Many of the forty or so hospitals were makeshift single-story wooden sheds. All were crowded. Often hundreds, sometimes thousands of wounded soldiers lay in adjoining beds.
In the lead up to the war, the Knights shifted their focus and began pushing for disunion, spearheading prosecession rallies, and intimidating Unionists in the South. The Knights likely carried out other clandestine missions before the war including attempts to take over federal forts in Virginia and North Carolina, activating prosouthern militia around Washington, D. Once the war started, the Knights helped build the emerging Confederate Army and assisted with the pro-Confederate Copperhead movement in northern states.
With the war all but lost, various Knights supported one of their members, John Wilkes Booth, in his plot to abduct and assassinate President Lincoln. It was not a big stretch to imagine our fictional Frank as member of the Knights of the Golden Circle receiving a mission from John Wilkes Booth to assassinate President Lincoln.
The Mansion House diabolical gunpowder plot gave us a perfect framework rooted in history. Did we take some artistic license by weaving all of these elements together? Absolutely, but we were playing with coincidence rather than simply fabricating a sensationalist tale out of thin air. The remarkable thing about our diabolical plot scenario is how plausible it is. David C. ISBN In the summer of an organization calling itself the Knights of the Golden Circle achieved national notoriety as an influential secret society formed to defend the rights southern slaveholders.
With the election of Abraham Lincoln, however, the Knights turned their attention to encouraging secession from the union, and, more aggressively, paramilitary seizure of arsenals and forts to be used to supply the yet to be formed Confederate army. At the onset of the war, the Knights were by and large absorbed into Confederate politics and the military. His work is all the more interesting because secret societies are, well, secret. Thus, they are not the most reliable repositories of written sources upon which historians generally rely.
The first extends from to George Bickley, a big-talking vocationally adrift huckster, spearheaded the movement on the pattern of another secret society, the Order of the Lone Star OLS. The Knights set out to conduct similar operations in northern Mexico, but the leadership did not wish to be associated with the filibuster tradition.
They insisted its members would comply with Unites States neutrality laws, and that they would invade only if invited by Mexican sympathizers. An invitation was not forthcoming and the venture faded. Still, this period served to organize the Knights into a hierarchical structure that could direct and promote its purposes across the South. The second period covers mid through Keehn argues that through this decentralized multistate network, the Knights became the most influential secret society advocating secession. In particular, they saw success in Texas, Virginia, and Kentucky.
Also in this period, the Knights employed intimidation tactics to frighten southern unionists, and they initiated bold if not rash plans to secure federal forts and arsenals in the southern states. While most members of the Knights of the Golden Circle eventually joined the Confederate army, elements of the organization remained active early in the war only later to be absorbed into more transparent pro-southern groups such as the Minute Men and the National Volunteers.
Finally, Keehn examines the period from mid to the assassination of President Lincoln. Here, the story concentrates on the possibility of a rejuvenated Knights of The Golden Circle, intent on sabotage, kidnapping, and even murder as the Confederacy faced its inevitable demise. Keehn gives particular attention to John Wilkes Booth, a member of the Knights from its earliest days, and a core group his cohorts concentrated around Baltimore and Washington. His research provides the most extensive scholarship on Bickely to date, and Keehn offers a compelling account of how the Knights understood their mission in the political context of the times.
Moreover, the work ably demonstrates how the intimidation tactics and militarism of an antebellum secret society translated with some ease into later extremist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan. Keehn offers very little evidence that the Knights possessed such influence, nor does he provide a clear cause and effect relationship linking the group to the politics of secession in these states.
Many organizations apart from the Knights were urging secession in Texas and Virginia in the early months of , and if the Knights were as influential as Keehn claims more evidence needs to be forthcoming. Similarly, associating the Knights with the conspirators who assassinated Lincoln demands much more evidence than this study provides. Despite the unconvincing arguments mentioned above, Knights of the Golden Circle remains a valuable contribution to the field of Civil War studies.
A list A list of of many of the treasures and depositories buried by the Knights of the Golden Circle was listed in the book Jesse James was one of his Names, by Del Schrader and his co-author Lee Hauk a. All of the information for this book was provided by Lee Hauk including the specific names and list of treasures provided in code. The KGC had a very prescribed and detailed method to burying large treasure depositories; also leaving a very sophisticated and overlapping methods of signs, clues, and many other types of locating devices.
Every treasure has a name that may or may not give a clue to where the treasure is located. Remember, these treasure were not to be easily found by weekend treasure hunters but were meant to be located and opened by the right person or group of people. I will indulge myself in this article to describe some very public and well protected methods of communication left by the leaders of the Knights of the Golden Circle.
It should be also divulged that the KGC buried smaller treasures in the vicinity of large depositories in an effort the conceal and divert attention away from the major treasures or depository. They also knew better than to keep all their eggs in one basket.
If you should happen to find a locating device please do not destroy it as it may prove valuable later on as you understand the KGC method of location intelligence. Sometimes a locating sign besides pointing to something local, can also be a locating device for other treasures many miles away and in some cases hundreds of miles away in other states.
I have heard of locating devices or treasure signs symbols strung along a chain of mountain tops covering over miles. Its important to know that the exact distance between the locating devices as they can be very important and should be plotted on the oldest U. In this article I will begin to list and describe certain signs and symbols which will provide a great deal of history and information on a set of of KGC treasures buried using the four corners region of the United States. If you can find the area where the Four Kings are located, you will start to pick up locations and clues to the other Royal Deck of Card Treasures.
The treasures listed in category code F are all located in the State of Colorado and New Mexico with locations in Arizona and Utah ie……the four kings, the four states, the four major depositories, marked by four major petroglyph sites and, with the major depositories located near or around four special mountain peaks. Please keep in mind also that the KGC organization used numerology in many of its ciphers and if your not familiar with numerology you should know that the number four is a very dangerous and mysterious number.
If I had to describe it in a few words I would describe it as a bad code or bad number. Confederate or KGC codes utilize many variations of numbers usually associated with Masonic Symbolism and Biblical stories. A good example would be King Solomon who would be associated with the number , which is the amount of gold that was given to him by the Queen of Sheba.
Well now, you already have a hint about two very important people associated with the KGC, a King and a Queen. Here is given the reason why Southern politicians were so much warmer in their support of the Mexican war than those of the North, as a general thing, and also the reason why Southern States furnished so many more volunteers for the war than did the Northern States. They felt that the successful termination of this war was a matter of the greatest interest to them, and, consequently, were very forward in its promotion. This scheme was not altogether successful, although it certainly did make advocates to the policy of the acquisition of Cuba through- out the United States.
In the year , the S. Par- ticular attention was now directed to the ingrafting of the policy of the acquisition of Cuba into the Democratic platform. It was confidently hoped to make it a national Democratic doctrine. In this they were, to a considerable extent, successful; and there is but little doubt that, had it not been for the agitation of the slavery question between the years , the acquisition of Cuba, either by purchase or conquest, would have become the leading political issue of the country.
Many Northern Democrats were strongly opposed to the policy, but no Southern ones were. In the Spring of , it became apparent to the Southern ex- tremists that the repeal of the Missouri Compromise had caused a great political revolution in the Northern States; that the old Whig party had become extinct, and that its former adherents, together with many old Democrats, were building up a new party. This was the so-called Know-Nothing party, which, although it professed to be purely American, was the legitimate two-fold result of the entire defeat of the Whig party and the repeal of the Com- promise just alluded to.
Shrewd Southern politicians did not fail to see the strong Free-6oil element which was gradually devel- oping in this party. The sweeping victory which the K. It was about this time that a certain George C. Bickley, who was a native of Boone county, Indiana, but, at the period alluded to, resided in Cincin- nati, went South, and, having espoused the cause of the S.
Having framed a constitution, by-laws, and ritual, and having effected thereby all the. The sev- eral divisions of the K. C, according to the new constitution, were called Castles. As in the case of most other secret orders, there were subordinate castles, and a Grand Castle, State Castle, or Legion. The officers of the Grand Castle were the same as those of the subordinates, with the addition of the prefix Grand.
Their new constitution set forth, in its first article, as one of the prin- cipal objects of the order, the acquisition of Cuba, Mexico, and Nicaragua. From this body nil the laws governing state and subordinate castles emanate, as also do the military lawn, or, as they are generally termed, "Articles of War. Knights greatly pride themselves on their swordsmanship. Having entered the castle, he was sworn to use all his efforts and powers in the fur- therance of the objects set forth in the constitution, viz. Nothing is said in either the constitution or ritual directly of the slave piracy, for the reason that it was feared that, bv some kind of accident, ''the papers" might fall into the hands of fhc " j ersecuting government.
The year gave the Knights a new impetus, and added many to their numbers, in consequence of the very large growth of the anti-slavery sentiment in the North during that year, an especial manifestation of which was afforded by the Presidential campaign. It was now that the rank pro-slavery tree began to produce the buds of secession Every effort was put forth to test the North and the General Government respecting the policy of absorption of Southern territory. This policy had been pretty strongly hinted at in the Cincinnati Platform, upon which Mr.
Buchanan was then running; but hints did not satisfy them. They were bound to have the plain and explicit declaration from the national Democratic party, that "we are in favor of the acquisition of Cuba," or dissolve their connection with it, and, if needs lie, with the government. A few paragraphs from the filed speeches of castle C, New Orleans, at this period will give the reader a pretty clear idea of the spirit and intent of the Knights. In perusing these speeches, passages such as the following occur: "The South can only hope for the real enjoyment of its rights in a Southern Confederacy, if the signs of the times mean anything Even the Democratic party is becoming Abolitionized.
We want more territory: we must have it; but can we hope to acquire it while the Abolitionists stand in our way, and the indifferent De- mocracy refuse to give us aid? Who can not see that the Demo- cratic party is becoming abolitionized? Why does not the present administration Pierce's carry out the principles of the Kansas- Nebraska Act in Kansas Territory?
Why does it allow those Emigrant Aid Societies of. Massachusetts to send their pauper cut- throats to disturb and endanger our people in the common territory of the United States?
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If we can't get territory in the Union, we can out of it. None whatever. While the Missouri Compromise line stood, we had some territory which we could call our own, and of which we were sun'. But how is it since that line is destroyed? Why, before one Southern man can get ready to migrate with his property, niggers, they send a whole legion of Yankee Abolitionists to Kansas to cut his throat and steal his negroes.
For the heading of this expedition they had, in their own ranks, one of the most daring and courageous of " chivalrous " adventurers. J allude to the no iess personage than General Walker. This gentleman was duly furnished and equipped with ships, men, and money by the liberal members of the K. C, and sent out to "take Nicar- agua.
But, as in the in- stance of the Cuban fillibuster war, the effort was not expected to prove successful, but was merely thrown out as a feeler, to deter- mine the condition of Uncle Sam's pulse. After Mr. Buchanan's accession to power, Walker's expeditions were renewed with in- creased energy ; and it was sincerely hoped that, by some ingenious maneuver, he would induce somebody to "insult" the United States, so that a good excuse might be afforded for an aggressive war. In this expectation, however, they were greatly disappointed; for nobody did insult the United States, nor even General Walker, half as much as they were insulted.
The only injustice done that individual was, that he was not hung before he started on his first expedition, dp to the time of which I am now writing, the order of the K. There were, in fact, very few persons, not members of the institu- tion, who even knew of its existence.
But among their small num- ber were many of the wealthiest capitalists of the South, such as Yancey and Toombs; and they were fully confident that the time was rapidly coining when they would literally swallow up the whole of their section of country. The year S found the Knights of the Golden Circle more highly organized, and gaining wonderfully in popularity. The division being effected in the Democratic party by the discussion of the celebrated Lecompton Constitution, gave them great hope of attaining the end to which they had been directing their efforts, with undiminished zeal, for the past two years, and which their organization had been calculated to effect from its very infancy — the dissolution of the American Union.
They had applied the most thorough tests to the general government, and had done all in their power to ascertain whether it were possible to entirely Southernize the great national Democratic party, and transform it into a pro-slavery engine with which they might extend and protect slavery everywhere, to little elfect. They had proven Mr. Buchanan to be a very indifferent friend to fillibustering movements; and, last of all, they had found that there were thousands of Democrats who would not agree that the people of a territory should have a constitution which they were utterly opposed to, nor admit that forty Northern men were equal to but one Southern man.
All these circumstances proved to them that secession was their only hope. The formation of a Southern Government was now talked of openly everywhere ; every means was used to make secessionists, and unite the Southern people. To this end it was thought the order of the K. C should be popularized by various improvements. The castle was divided into an outer and inner temple; the outer temple being, in fact, the old castle to which, according to some changes made in the ritual and constitution, members were admitted on probation, preparatory to entering the inner temple.
In this department the regalia consists of a close helmet for the head, from the top of which peers upward a small silver spear, and to the frontal portion of which is attached a silver crescent ; of a close-fitting garment for the thorax and upper extremities, very much resembling the ancient coat of mail, and along, straight sword suspended to the left side. To these were added the skull and cross-bones. Now for the language of the symbols : The crescent represents the growing Southern Confederacy; the temple, with its glowing sun and fifteen stars, foreshadows the glorious ,: sunny South," under the benign influence of a fully matured Southern Government, extending its borders through Cuba, Mexico, and Central and South America; the skull and cross-bones signify death to all ''Abolition- ists" and opposers of "Southern independence.
Like Garrison and his followers, they considered this an " accursed Union," and that its longer continuance was only calculated to degrade and oppress the South. In view of this object, they determined to aban- don the kidnapping business, inasmuch as it involved consid- erable expense, and required close attention, and concentrate all their energies upon the institution of now castles throughout all the Southern States.
Whenever they were known to be " good Southern men" they were welcomed and hailed with joy. At one time during the year of which 1 now write, , some very prominent citizens of New Albany, Indiana, proposed to have a castle instituted in their city, but the Knights thought that as their order was "pe- culiarly a Southern one," it were better that it should not extend into free soil. If thins, rather distanced thoso of the Gulf States in the promotion of the "good cause. The Germans in Texas had demonstrated to the world that they could even excel the "nigger" in the cultivation of the cotton plant.
This was considered as a very dangerous argument against the "peculiar institution. The Germans had become thoroughly acclimated, and being very healthy and prolific, bid fair to seriously undermine, and ul- timately destroy, the slave interests of Texas. Fully conscious of these facts, the members of the K. All through the year , the Knights were working with un- abated energy for the increase of their numbers and the " firing of the Southern heart," found them making great prepara- tions for the presidential campaign of that year.
It had been strongly indicated by the Democrats of the great Northwest, at their recent state elections, that a less conservative man than Douglas would receive very few of their votes for the U. Presidency in the coming contest; and, from the strong op- position to him by Southern fire-eaters and Northern dough-faces in the national Congress of that year, it was clear that a division, and consequent defeat, of the Democratic ticket could be easily effected, and an excuse, by that means, afforded for the consumma- tion of their great leading design.
Perhaps no politician ever had a firmer hold upon the sympa- thies of his adherents than Mr. Of this fact the Knights were fully aware; and, knowing that many of the prominent lead- ers of the Northern Democracy were jealous of the " Little Giant," it was duly arranged to secure their services both in Congress and in the contemplated April convention, to the end of so dividing that body that a sufficient number might be drawn off to form another convention and nominate another candidate.
Months before the meeting of the National Democratic Conven- tion, men of the Yancey stripe had literally sworn, in castle, to split that Convention, and thereby utterly defeat its objects, or else entirely Southernize it. The speech was made at a meeting held, January 11th, "The next administration shall he purely Southern, or we will have no administration at all. We will have a strictly Southern Rights Congress. If we can't have such a congress at Washington, we will have it somewhere else. Our rights of property should be secured, not onlv here and in the common territories, but all over the United States.
Why can't we travel where we please with our negroes, and stay as long as we like, without molestation? The powers at the National Capital, under the influence of the abolition puritans, will never, in my opinion, grant the just privi- leges claimed by Southern gentlemen. The Democratic party North is fast selling itself out to the Abolitionists, and, from pres- ent appearances, we may expect that before another campaign Steve Douglas and Fred' Douglass will lie spoken of as the candi- dates for the Presidency and Vice Presidency, to be nominated at a fusion convention, composed of Dlack Republicans and Squatter Sovereignty Democrats.
We don't expect Northern men to vote for him. We don't want them to. We only want a man that a Southern gentleman can vote for with clean 'hands and a clear conscience. I would say, give us Yancey or Jeff Davis. We can vote for such men as these conscientiously. We do n't expect to elect them ; we don't want to elect them according to the modes prescribed by the United States Constitution.
We only want to show the North our hand and our strength. Let them elect their Abolition can- didate. Is there one here who does not hope they will? For my part, it has been my desire, for over ten years, that the North would give us some "good excuse for the dissolution of the Union. At the coming Democratic convention we must have this Order well represented; we must have men there who will carry out our wishes; we must show the mulatto Democrats Douglas men that we will have a man of our own selection.
He must he a Knight, and a good one at that. There is little doubt, from the present bull-headedness of the Douglasites, that this policy will result in the division of the convention, and the nomination of two candidates; but that is just what we want. It will only assist the election of the Abolition candidate, which, as 1 have before said, is the upper- most desire of our hearts, in that it will afford a lawful excuse for dissolving a Union which has, for the past thirty years, been the most formidable obstacle to Southern progress.
From the popular expressions of the Northwestern people at the hallot box, at their reeent elections, they knew full well their desire of disruption would be successfully -attained by this requirement. In April, 18G0, the National Democratic Convention assembled at Charleston, and it seemed to be the universal desire of the conservative men to harmonize that body by making every per- sonal concession consistent with what they had honestly believed to be a fair interpretation of the Cincinnati Platform.
They pro- posed to lay aside all the differences of the past, say nothing about reeent quarrels, and simply adopt the old Cincinnati Plat- form, with the mere addition that the slavery question in the territories should be settled by the Supreme Court, presuming, as they did. If there had been any desire on the part of the Knights as nearly all the Breckinridge men were, to forget old differences and reunite the party, they would have readily agreed to this proposition.
But no such desire existed among them. Nothing but a full and explicit acknowledgment that "neither Congress nor a Territorial Legis- lature" could impair the rights of property in slaves, and that it was "the duty of the Federal Government, in all its departments, to protect the rights of persons and property in the territories, and wherever else its authority extends," would begin to satisfy them. Whenever a Southern man says "property," he means " niggers; 1 so that what the Knights really desired of the Douglas men was, that they should admit that no power on earth could, in any way.
Every man at all acquainted with the history of the past live years, knows that Mr. Buchanan was elected upon the principle of non-inter- vention; and to presume that the conservative men of the North- west could indorse Congressional Intervention to the ridiculous and inconsistent extreme required by the Southern "nigger" wor- shipers in the Charleston Convention, was something that none but fools could do.
As my readers are all aware, the result of the unreasonable demands made upon the conservatives was the division of the Con- vention, or, more properly speaking, the secession of the Knights, and the formation of another convention. Both these conventions adjourned before arriving at any definite conclusion respecting the selection of a candidate, to meet again at Baltimore, in the month of June.
On the part of the K. In the interim between the two meetingG the Knights were busily engaged in castle, devising means whereby fchev might hold the organization ai Baltimore, and thereby force the Douglas men to secede. By this ruse it was hoped to preserve for their faction tiif Dame of "The Regular Democratic Convention," and thus more thoroughly divi le the party: and it was duly arranged that it' they could not succeed in this plan, they would cause the speaker Mr.
Cushing to " secede" and by that means carry all the weight they possibly could with them. Juno arrived, and, at the assembling of the convention, the Knights found themselves clearly beaten, as it regarded their first plan, by the superior activity of the conservatives. They even came very near being denied a seat in the assembly, '-'hey were, consequently, forced to their last plan as the only alternative.
That the Democratic party will abide by the decision of the Supreme Court of the Unite 1 States over the institution of slavery in the territories. In contrasting the above quotations, it requires no very great degree of perspicuity to determine which is the more conciliatory of the two; nor docs it require a very high development of the perceptives to see that the boasted ''national" doctrine of non- intervention, of which we all heard so much in 1S5G, had been entirely abandoned by the secessionists as a political humbug, and that they had fallen back on the old idea, always maintained by the Republicans, that Congress had a right to interfere with the institution of slavery in the territories, and that it was its duty to do it.
The only difference between the Republicans and Breckinridge men on this point, being that the former believed Congress should prohibit the introduction of slavery into the ter- ritories, while the latter taught that Congress should protect it to the full extent of its powers. In this connection I will quote from the Repub- lican platform, framed at Chicago, May, Now, respecting the Republican idea of the power of Congress to prohibit slavery in the territories, it had the decided advantage of legislative precedent from the earliest periods of our national history to within a few years past, and, therefore, if we are to decide in favor of intervention at all, we must go with the Republicans.
The principleof non-intervention was certainly Democratic; the greatest objection to it, perhaps, was that it was too Democratic to he applied to this age and this Government. The Contest op — the Breckinridge movement, and the insincerity op its opposition to llncoln the k. The two Baltimore Conventions having finished their work, adjourned, and went forth organizing state tickets, and presenting tlie claims of their respective candidates to the people of the country. Now, he it rememhered, there were many warm supporters of Mr.
Buchanan's administration, and political enemies of Senator Douglas, who, seeing the disorganized condition of the Democratic party, and the certain prospect of defeat in consequence, were willing to make almost any personal sacrifice in order to bring about a better state of affairs. These proposed to allow Breckinridge to take the South and Douglas the North, in the hope that thereby the election of Lincoln would be prevented, and the choice thrown into Congress.
These men were honest in their intentions, whatever we may say of their political views. They labored earnestly to prevent the organization of a Breckinridge ticket in any Northern State: but they were not members of the K. C, and, consequently, unac- quainted with the real intent and meaning of the Breckinridge movement. Their reasoning, their efforts, their appeals, were not heeded, and almost before we were aware of it, there was a Secession ticket that is the proper name in nearly every state north of the Ohio River, with such men as the Hon.
B and 1. There were many men in the North who were not bona-fide members of the K. C, who still advocated the claim of the Secession ticket almost purely out of the hatred and envy they bore Mr. Douglas; others again were duped and lured into it. A certain Mr.
B , of Indiana, a Mr. V , of Ohio, the editor of the Day Book, and a Mr. C , of Massachusetts, were said to be about the only reliable members the Order claimed among the prominent Northern politicians. Of course there were several of the " small fry " in many places. As has already been seen, the members of the K. But there was with them another and far greater object to be attained by it, viz. This was a desideratum of no little impori since it was honestly believed ami fully expected that, in the ponding revolution of , every man in the North who had voted for Breckinridge might be set down on the lists as a soldier for the Southern army.
All over the North agents were employed to attend the elections, ascertain the exact number of Breckinridge voters, and forward the same to any regularly organized castle in the South. This latter movement was somewhat interrupted in New York and some other Eastern states by the Union coalition entered into by all the parties opposed to the election of Mr. But, notwithstanding this, a pretty accurate calculation was made of the probable sympathetic aid that might be expected from every state north of Mason and Dixon's line. About two months be the presidential election, there was an extensive correspondence going on between Northern and Southern Knights, in which the former wen' representing the secession strength of their Bection as being very great In this connection I have thought fit to present, insubstance, a few letters which I have had the opportunity of seeing.
If I had been safe in so doing, 1 would have copied them verbatim. Here is one written from Madison, Indiana : Madison, Sept. Corresponding Sf. Dear Sir : — You may toll the friends of Southern Rights that our district can turn out at least one thousand men who will fight Northern aggression to the death. Be of good cheer, and work faithfully. Yours for the right, T. Put us down as A, number one.
Very respectfully yours, etc. Corresponding Sec. Castle, K. There are thirty thousand voters in this State who will never compromise with Black Republican- ism, and I think I may safely say that there are at least ten thousand who will shoulder their muskets in defense of the rights of their Southern brethren. Your ob't servant, M. The letter below i-; from the little town of Carlisle, Indiana: Carlisle, Sept. Jefferson Castle, K. Dear Sir: — 1 have taken the pains to count noses in this district, especially in this county, and I can set you down, at the least calcula- tion, two thousand fighting men, who will, at a moment's warning, in case of need, march to the standard of Southern Rights, and it, is highly probable that the whole of Indiana south of the National Road will secede and unite its fortune with the South when Lincoln is elected.
Ever yours, etc. The foregoing letters I saw and read among the filed papers of Jefferson Castle, Kentucky, and these were from Indiana alone. From what I could gather from prominent members of the Order, I think 1 may safely estimate the promised sympathetic aid of the several Northwestern States as follows: Indiana, at least 10,; Ohio, about 5,; Illinois, 5,; Pennsylvania, at least Total, 95, Beside the assistance expected from the above mentioned States, they looked for a good deal from others, both in the way of men and money. At no time previous to the bombardment of Fort Sumter was it presumed that the number of men to be counted on from the North would fall below ,, and with these, and the assistance of Northern capitalists.
Northern engi- neers, manufacturers, etc. Treasury and the U. Arsenal:, it was confi- dently apprehended as nothing more than a breakfast spell to "clean out the Abolitionists," capture the Capita' tigton, and kick Uncle Sam into nonenity. Let the reader presume this card to be placed before liiiu with the long, acute angle upward, as the upper part of a -pear in situ; let him imagine the figure 7 in the left hand corner.
These cards were thrown about the streets and corners of many of the Northern border cities nearly two months before the election of Mr. This is true. Floyd and Cobb had. P for securing the anus of U. In addition to the foregoing, by far the larger portion of the regular army had been distributed among various outposts in Texas and Utah, where it was quite out of reach. The Navy had been, with the exception of an insignificant home squadron, sent to the most distant foreign points by that poor, pitiful, nigger truckling yankee, Isaac Toucey, in order that i: might not be readily recalled.
Further, it was arranged to send nearly every navy officer of known loyalty abroad, while a large majority of those to be selected for the home squadron Knights of the genuine stamp. To Delaware. Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, and. Missouri, where it was known that the K. In order to more thoroughly prepare the' people of the Gulf States for the antici- pate! Lincoln was elected, the almost immediate abolition of slavery in all the Slave States would follow; and that he Lincoln was, in point of civilization, but a few removes from a Fejee Islander. The newspapers under the control of the Knights were constantly employed in giving the most distorted and unjust delineations of the characters of the Republican nominees.
North- ern editor- who wrote disparagingly or abusively of Lincoln and the Republican party were largely quoted from, and in small countrj sheets which rarely ever reached a Northern or border town, "such quotations were miserably garbled, and presented to the people vastly more unjust than they were originally, in many of the Gulf States the common people were fully of the opinion that Mr. Hamlin was a mulatto, from the newspaper de- scriptions they had read of him. It was even currently reported, at one time, that his wife was a quadroon.
Meantime, such a course was to be pursued toward Northerr men caught in the South, of the slightest Republican tendency as would stir up tin; indignation of the Northern people. Mei were to be tarred and feathered, ridden on rails, ducked in mudd; water, and even hung, or shot, where any sufficient excuse couli be had. In short, every species of taunt and insult were to b used in order to arouse and irritate the North, so that Mr. Lii coin's election might be all the more certain.
The effects of ruffiai ism in Kansas had proven to them that the more they abused th North, the more intense would be its opposition to that institutio which really does seem to engender, either directly or indirect! In Nashvil! Tribur in the trunk of a gentleman from Boston, Avho had been teachi music in Nashville nearly two years. The mere finding of the papers in bis possession was construed by Knights into " distribi ing incendiary documents. Another instance. An " Egj ian," from Illinois, who had been on a visit to some of his frie in Tennessee, in September, I, and who had been born ; raised in that state, was going home per railroad through K tucky.
The train was pretty well filled with Knights on their i to Louisville, to assist in organizing a new castle in that pi: Perceiving, from his appearance, that lie was a Northerner, t proceeded to cross-examine the "Egyptian" respecting his polii Seeing, from the complexion of things that the surrounding ati phere was highly "chivalrous," and not being as successfi hypocrite as the "Subscriber," be endeavored to pursue the i committal course.
But that would not do: they only persi the more urgently with their quizzings. This acknowl ment was tb. G C's to de t heir more than heathenish conduct. But still they could not ve the job up entirely; and when the train stopped at the no Tt -ation, they induced the women and children fV , , t he a oinfn, K! Toward the close of Mr. Lincoln's campaign it became apparent that his election was pretty certain. Nearly all the great Middle and Northwestern States had elected the Republican state ticket, and it now seemed that the grand object for which the Knights had labored so earnestly was about to be attained.
In view of this contingency, they adopted a regular system of brow-beating, almost unequaled in the history of the world. They coined the appellation " Submissionist," and applied it, with great bitterness, to every man who indicated that he would await the committal of some overt act before he was willing his state should go out of the Union. Every editor and orator under their control, or within their hellish precincts, indulged in the most abusive epithets to- ward loyal citizens. Every appeal was made to Southern pride and Southern honor.
Full well they knew the effeqjs of this sys- tem of "coercing" the Southern people into the inextricable vor- tex of secession. Almost any really high-toned gentleman of the South prefers death to the name "coward," which term was con- sidered by the "chivalry" as synonymous with "Submissionist. Further, it was now considered a good time to extend the Order of the K. Every man among them, therefore, who had education enough to read the ritual, was delegated to go forth and organize castles wherever he could find the material with which to construct one.
In drumming for the Order, the agents took care to say nothing about the original objects for which it was framed, viz. Castles were organ- ized wherever a sufficient number could be got together for the purpose, irrespective of regalia, emblems, or any of the regular paraphernalia of the Order. Court-rooms, store-rooms, and ev o smoke houses and stables were used. New degrees were insti- tute.! In these the candidate saw but little of the "inner beauties" of the castle. In the first, he was only sworn to resist the encroachments of "abolitionism" with all his powers; in the second, he was sworn to stand by the South, and especially his own state, and follow her destinies, wherever they tended; in the third, which was the las!
The candidate was now prepared to enter the Outer Temple of the castle, where be was received according to the new ritual, one framed and adopted in October, I, which required the most solemn pledges that the initiate would never retrace a single one of his recent steps, and that he would, to the utmost of his powers, aid in promoting the formation of a Southern government. Further, this ritual de- mands that a man shall consider no act toward the enemies of "Southern rights" as too gross or unjust for him to commit In other words, he is required to swear that be will do anything to punish "Abolitionists" and bring them to terms, the injury of their women and children excepted.
This last feature, viz. This ritual also gives the initiate license to kill any man whom he has reason to believe is a real Abolitionist, in any way he sees proper, and the Order is pledged to protect him to the end. Time moved, and at last the joyful news of Mr. Lincoln's elec- tion was trumpeted throughout the South. All the principal castles now put on their holiday garments, and men were beard in the streets to thank God that the hour for " Southern deliverance had come. Cal- houn Castle, located at Charleston, considered itself as second to no place but Heaven, and hardly to that; and well might she have felt proud, because she was the mother of Southern harlots, and to her continuous and industrious workings, for many long years, were to be attributed the mighty growth of the secession snake, which, when she first found it, was indeed a very young one.
Xo sooner had the news of the election of Lincoln been received, than every Knight in Charleston mounted a cockade on his hat, and ran through the streets, shouting, "Uloky! The d — d old Union is gone to hell! Everything was to be done in hot haste. All the speeches that were delivered at this period by the Knights par- took of the hot, precipitous character of the conspirators. Not- withstanding their efforts to increase their numbers previous to the election, they were still in the minority, even in the Gulf States, and it was considered as fatal in the extreme to allow the common people of the country the least opportunity for thought or reflection.
Many of these hitter seemed to think that the matter of secession should lie left with the border Slave States, it being clear to them that, inasmuch as these states were more interested than theirs, they should be allowed a controlling voice. Persons of this order of thinking termed themselves "Co-opcra- tionists," and favored the calling of a convention of all the Slave States. Stephens, of Georgia, was their leader; and had it not been for his great popularity, the co-operative theory would have dwindled much sooner than it did.
It is, however, wonderful how the " Co-operationists," with a clear majority in every state but South Carolina, should have suffered themselves to be driven into the whirlpool of secession by the brow-beating force of the appellations "Submissionist," "Abolitionist. The cause which they advocated was not one which would admit of reflective delibera- tion, and hence, to allow the people time to reason in the premises, and determine the ultimate effects of secession upon the Slave States, or to ascertain the administrative policy of the newly elected President, would have proved fatal to their designs.
It was a fact which none could deny, that the Democracy had a clear majority in both houses of Congress — a majority which could have held the administration in check, however much it might have been disposed to diverge from the path of constitutional rectitude — a majority which might have literally tied the President hand and foot, and have rendered him as incapable of encroaching upon "Southern rights!
All the newspapers under the control of the K. A weak cause always demands precipitancy. Of this the Knights were fully aware, and, therefore, took the advantage of the chagrined condition of the Southern people to " rush matters. No respect was to be shown the Government or the U. Ample provisions were made for stealing on a large scale; United States senators and congressmen were to proceed to Washington and receive their regular pay for black- guarding the North, defaming the Government, and talking treason, and then, so soon as their states had seceded, whip off home like a thieving hound leaves a meat-house, with a ham in his mouth and his tail between his loirs.
All the plans for robbing the na- tional treasury, securing U. They don't, however, know all of them — that secession, with all its hellish concomitants was the legitimate result of the workings of a long and well or- ganized band of robbers, more damnable than any who ever stood on the footstool, and pirates blacker than any who have preceded them to hell. Nor do they all know that some of the leading spirits of this clique had been at the very head of the American government for four years and more.
There are, even yet, people who do nor like to acknowledge that such men as Cobb and Floyd had been plotting the destruction of the American government, and the robbing of its treasury for nearly the whole time they were in its employ. Finally, by the incessant hurrying and driving of the Knights, South Carolina was precipitated out of the Union, and her " in- dependence" declared. This they considered ' ; knocking the key- stone out,' which would be followed by the tumbling of the whole arch, as indicated by the motto inscribed upon some of the Charles- ton banners: "South Carolina lbads, others will follow" No advantage was to be lost, and the old adage: "Give the devil an inch and he will take a foot," proved itself true in this instance.
No sooner had the news of South Carolina's secession reached the principal cities in the Gulf States, than exciting bulletins were thrown broadcast, cannons fired, public mass meetings called, ex- citing speeches made, resolutions drawn up, read, and " adopted" by the crowd, and every other means of "firing the Southern heart" applied with great force. Thus, it was generally arranged that a certain number of the " chivalry" should, after taking a sufficient quantity of the inspiring beverage, go into the assembly where the meeting was to be held, " hurra for South Carolina" and "the South," and curse Lincoln, the Union, and every man that would submit to " Aboli cion rule.
I do not know whether this could be called " coercion'' or not; but I can certainly see very little difference between whisky and mob sua- sion, and what some people call coercion. Perhaps the question might be settled by Webster, were it not that, in these latter days, that inferior lexicographer had been superseded by such learned dignitaries as Yallandigham and Gen. Joe Lane. Now, about this time, it was ascertained that the people in the North were getting exceedingly anxious about the Union.
The telegraph was re- peatedly announcing the calling and holding of " big mass meet- ings," the passage of " conciliatory resolutions," etc. These were laughed to seorn, derided, scoffed. One artistic Knight, who was a native of Boston, Mass. The first of these pictures presented a view of the citizens of the City of Brotherly Love, immediately after the election of Lincoln, paying homage to "Old Abe," and a big ''nigger" who stood by his side as Mr. The second presented the same citizens after the secession of South Carolina, driving the " nigger," with clubs and hounds, back to that state, and kicking " Honest Old Abe" off a rickety old bench, which bore the inscription "Chicago Platform" unto another called " Compromise.
They were also sent to certain private individuals in some of the Northern Border State towns. The offers of compromise, and the repeal of Personal Liberty Bills by the North were considered not only humiliating to those who offered them, but insulting to thoso to whom they were offered. By some they were presumed to be hypocritical artifices, intended to hold the South in the Union while she should bo lashed by slavery restriction.
The truth is, the K. Se- cession they had been working zealously to achieve for several years, and secession they were bound to have. They had ex- pended time and money ; they had sacrificed the last vestige of honor, and gone, heart and soul, into the most diabolical plots and conspiracies for secession, and no compromise short of the adop- tion, by the North, of the proposed Confederate constitution, would have satisfied them. The speeches of Johnson did both -angry, because he was decidedly hostile to iheir plans, whereas being a Southron, they thought he should he their friend— afraid, because, in consequence of his great popu- larity in Tennessee, they had good reason to believe he might prove a serious drawback to them in that state.
If every Senator and Congressman who had taken the solemn oath to obey and defend the United States Constitution had been as faithful to his pledge as Johnson was, the Confederates would never have gained the time on the government they did. But with a weak-spined, indecisive, disconcerted, treacherous Congress, majority of genuine Knights in the Cabinet, and a literal mud man in the Presidential chair, they had ample time and facilities to drag six more states out of the Union, occupy forts, steal arms, fortify themselves, and laugh defiance in the very face of the government Among all the compromises proposed, that known as the Critten- den Compromise seemed to attract most attention.
It will he remembered that. Jeff Davis proposed that if the Republicans would present this compromise "in good faith. Never did a greater lie escape from under the forge- hammer of the father of lies than was this. In the second place, he had written all the principal castles to work steadily and earnestly; that the Knights in Congress and in the Cabinet were acting their parts nobly, the parts they had to perforin were blackguarding and stealing, and that everything betokened the speedy achievement of Southern independence. In the third and last place, he knew that such a thing as the offering of the Crittenden Compromise "in good faith," by the Republicans, was an utter impossibility.
Then, asks the reader, wdiat was Davis's object in making the pro- position? It was. During the early compromise discussions in Congress, many of the hotter ssionists in the Gulf States were declaring they would have no compromise; but Jeff wrote them to be still and allow "things to v, ork as long as they would work,'' as by that means "much valuable time was to be gained.
Lincoln, who had not yet been inaugurated, could not raise half as many men to fight for- "the Onion, the Constitution, and the enforce- ment of the laws," as could be sent South to assist in maintain- ing "Southern rights. A certain very prominent poli- tician in Ohio had made a similar demonstration of his devotion to the Smith Another, of the latter stripe, in New York, had promised a brigade of five thousand men, furnished for the war. The inauguration of Lincoln being near at hand, some of the K. Now, had it not been for the encouragement given them from Northern quarters, the Southern Castles would never have matured the plan for the Capi- tal's seizure as far as they did.
The plan alluded to, of which the people of the country gener- ally had several hints, was as follows: About one thousand men, armed with bowie knives and pistols, were to meet secretly at Baltimore, where they were to secure the services of the Plug Uglier. Thence they were to proceed to Washington, on the day previous to the inauguration, and stop at the hotels as private citizens, after which their leader was to reconnoitcr and select the most effective mode of operations on the succeeding day. This scheme was not encouraged by Jeff Davis, as he was not yet quite crazy enough to think that a few dozen of the "chivalry" could terrify the whole world by one demonstration.
Wigfall, however, thought it a "capital idea, in more senses than one, and urged its vigorous prosecution. Fortunately, the plot was discovered, to some extent, in time to give Gen. Scott an opportunity to present some very forcible, and, with the K. C, decisive arguments against it. Lincoln himself, and had he known it, would doubt- less have done all in his power to conceal the matter, when he saw the preparations being made to prevent it, in order to pre- serve the fair fame of Baltimore.
Finally, the day for the inaugu- ration March 4, arrived, and the presence of Scott's U. In the South it was received as a '"coercive" document, while in the North, the ma- jority regarded it as a conservative exposition of policy. Even tiie majority of Northern Democrats with whom I had an oppor- tunity of conversing, thought the President could have said no less than he did, and abide by the Constitution.
The mere inti- mation contained in the inaugural speech that the laws would be enforced, was all the Knights desired. This was " coercion" enough for them, and, in their estimation, no epithet was too con- ; mptible to apply to those who indorsed it, whether living North or South. Here was another chance to sweep loyal Southern men from their position of honor into the secession hell.
Lincoln's inauguration, one of the first questions for him to settle was, " What shall we do with the Confederates and the forts? I and and foot, could do was to awi rents, and take opportui the forelock. Floyd, ma last year, 1,, there were one hundred and fifteen thousand improved muskets and rifles transferred from the Springfield armory and Watervliet arsenal to dil nals in the South. Charleston S.
What numbers are supplied by oilier and minor orders, and what number of improved arms bad, before the great order, been deposited in the South, ran not now be ascer- tained. According to the advanced views of this progressive age, it is very wrong to "coerce" a regularly organized band of burglars and robbers to justice.
I presume that if the devil was to lead his impish legions to the very portals of Paradise, and threaten to bombard the New Jerusalem, it would be very "coercive" in Jeiioyau to send Michael and his army to repulse him. Time progressed, and it began to appear that Lincoln's course was to be a peaceful one.
This had the effect to induce the Union men of the South — for there were yet many there — to believe that, perhaps, a brighter day was ahead. In fact, the Union feeling was becoming so strong, from the lapse of excitement, that, toward the close of. March, Union flags were raised in Mobile and Natchez. The Knights were not blind to this reaction. A little time and reflection, they knew, would ruin their enterprise. The truth is, the people in nearly all the Cotton - were mowing tired of so much extra taxation and slavish drudgery for the mere sake of sustaining the name of the ''South- ern Confederacy.
If these commissioners were not officially received, it was to be taken for granted that Lincoln intended " coercion; " and yet no human being, with any knowledge of the Federal Constitution, could explain how the President could negotiate with the "Con- federate Commissioners" without violating his oath. Lincoln himself could not do it without having a new constitution forged for the occasion — which a good many Northerners Beemed anxious he should do; so what, in the name of common Bense, could be done to prevent that thing, so much dreaded by Northerners, and so terribly hated by Southrons, called "coercion?
In proof of this assertion, 1 refer the reader to the historical fact that, when Mr. Lincoln had, through the advice of his military func- tionaries, concluded to evacuate Sumter, the authorities at Charles- ton refused to allow it on any other than their own conditions. They would agree to nothing but an unconditional surrender; would not allow that the fort should be claimed as United States property, nor that Major Anderson should even be allowed to sa- lute his Hag, on leaving it. The ostensible objects, therefore, in sending the "Confederate Commissioners" to Washington were, in the first place, to procure a battle; in the second place, to avail themselves of sufficient time and sympathy to make ample preparations for the future; and, in the third place, by their hypocritical pretensions to a de- sire for peace, to inflame and draw oil' the Border Slave States.
Prominent members of the K. A battle at Sumter or Pick- ens would excite that pride, and advantage must be taken of the first opportunity for a collision. Southern pride is a thing of remarkable sensitiveness; so sen- sitive, in fact, that, when wounded, it induces men who pretend to be very intelligent to overlook all their political, social, and personal interests for the mere sake of resentment.
I heard a man deliver a speech in Owensboro', Kentucky, in which he declared that secession was unconstitutional, and that every intel- ligent man knew there was no such thing as "the right of seces- sion ; " that, under existing circumstances, there was no excuse justifying the act; that the mere election of any man according to the prescribed mode of the Constitution, did not justify any state in leaving the Union ; that Lincoln had done nothing to warrant such an action; that it was not probable he would; and that, in reality, every man who favored or advocated secession was, according to the laws of nations and according to the laws of the United States, a traitor and a rebel.
If we do not, we are lost, irrecoverably lost. Then, in the most touching and elo- quent terms, he alluded to the old American flag; said that with his very mother's milk he had imbibed an indescribable love and reverence for that flag; that his grandfather had spent the vigor of his youth and the flower of his manhood in defending the banner of the free in '76; that his father, with his only uncle, David Crockett, had both fallen upon the battle field, each fight- ing, as long as life and action remained, to sustain the honor of the glorious old stars and stripes; that no flag on earth could ever occupy the place in his affections that the old American ensign had.
I am a Southern man, we are all Southern men, and a Northern sectional candidate has been elected by a sectiona. Our sister Southern States have become indignant at this action, and have seceded from the Union; and although we — many of us, at least — part with the old Union and the old flag with sighs and regrets, we are forced to do it, or submit ourselves to a tyran- nical and oppressive 'Abolition' majority, where we will be worse than slaves.
Crockett, of Ken- tucky.
The Knights of the Golden Circle
The best I could do, therefore, was to give the substance The style oft! W is an orator of great force and surpassing I 1 do not remember to have ever heard a sj ch thai produced the effect on me that this one did. The speaker was natui-ally a noble man, of generous impulses and warm sympathies, of hopeful soul ami patriotic heart, but in th company that could have been select, d for him. As he spoki i of 1 1 Id flag i d 1 the love he bore it, tears gathered in his eyes an i trickled down his cheeks, which were covered with the blush of shame: the expression of his large gray eye was that of mingled sorrow and regret, while his manly breasl heaved tumultously, almost to the choking of his utterance.
In short, he s seined as "a strong man bound, ' without the power of escaping from those who wen plying to him the excoriating lash of disunion, and forcing him to utter their sentiments, not his. IJut the insid- ious serpent of secession had coiled itself about his soul, fastened its poisonous fangs upon his heart, and destroyed his manhood.
Nor is he the only one vrho has been falsely lured from the path of loyalty into the disunion hell Hundreds, if not thou- sands, of others are in the same deplorable condition.
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