The Independent regards it as "perhaps" one of the first concept albums, consisting of semi-autobiographical songs about the hardships of American migrant labourers during the s. In the late s, the LP record was introduced, with space age pop composers producing concept albums soon after.
Themes included exploring wild life and dealing with emotions, with some albums meant to be played while dining or relaxing; this was accompanied in the mid s with the invention of the gatefold , which allowed room for liner notes to explain the concept. Sinatra is credited as the inventor of the concept album , beginning with The Voice of Frank Sinatra , which led to similar work by Bing Crosby. According to biographer Will Friedwald , Sinatra "sequenced the songs so that the lyrics created a flow from track to track, affording an impression of a narrative, as in musical comedy or opera First pop singer to bring a consciously artistic attitude to recording.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, the Who's Tommy are variously cited as "the first concept album" for their "uniform excellence rather than some lyrical theme or underlying musical motif". Other records have been claimed as "early" or "first" concept albums; the Greatest Bands of All Time states that the Ventures "pioneered the idea of the rock concept album years before the genre is acknowledged to have been born".
It was recorded at the band's Britannia Row Studios in London throughout , was produced by the band; the album continues the longform compositions that made up their previous works, including Wish You Were Here. The album received positive reviews from critics and was commercially successful, reaching number 2 and 3 in the UK and US, respectively.
Since its release, it has sold over 5 million copies worldwide. Lyrically, Animals is a concept album that provides a scathing critique of the social-political conditions of late s Britain, presents a marked change in musical style from their earlier work, its production was punctuated by early signs of tension within the band, which would culminate in keyboardist Richard Wright leaving the band. The album's cover image shows an inflatable pig floating between two chimneys of the Battersea Power Station , conceived by the band's bassist and lead songwriter Roger Waters , was designed by long-time collaborator Storm Thorgerson.
Though the band released no singles from the record, they promoted it through the In The Flesh tour , which prompted an incident in which Waters became agitated with the crowd, forming the basis for their next record, The Wall. In , Pink Floyd bought a three-story block of church halls at 35 Britannia Row in Islington , north London, their deal with Harvest Records ' parent company EMI for unlimited studio time in return for a reduced percentage of sales had expired, they converted the building into a recording studio and storage facility.
Its construction took up most of , in April the band started work on their tenth studio album, Animals, at the new facility. Animals was engineered by a previous Floyd collaborator, Brian Humphries , recording took place at Britannia Row from April to December , continuing into early They were reworked to fit the new concept, separated by a Waters-penned composition, "Pigs". With the exception of "Dogs" the album's five tracks were written by Waters; the song contains references to Waters' private life.
Gilmour was distracted by the birth of his first child, contributed little else towards the songwriting of the album. Neither Mason nor Wright contributed as much as they had on previous albums, Animals was the first Pink Floyd album not to contain a composer's credit for Wright; the band had discussed employing another guitarist for future tours, Snowy White was therefore invited into the studio. When Waters and Mason inadvertently erased one of Gilmour's completed guitar solos, White was asked to record a solo on " Pigs on the Wing ". Although his performance was omitted from the vinyl release, it was included on the eight-track cartridge version.
White performed on the Animals tour.
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Loosely based on George Orwell's political fable Animal Farm , the album's lyrics describe various classes in society as different kinds of animals: the combative dogs, the despotic ruthless pigs, the "mindless and unquestioning herd" of sheep. Whereas the novella focuses on Stalinism , the album is a critique of crony capitalism and differs again in that the sheep rise up to overpower the dogs; the album was developed from a collection of unrelated songs into a concept which, in the words of author Glenn Povey, "described the apparent social and moral decay of society, likening the human condition to that of mere animals".
Apart from its critique of society, the album is a part-response to the punk rock movement, which grew in popularity as a nihilistic statement against the prevailing social and political conditions, a reaction to the general complacency and nostalgia that appeared to surround rock music. Drummer Nick Mason stated that he welcomed the "Punk Rock insurrection" and viewed it as a welcome return to the underground scene from which Pink Floyd originated.
In he produced Music for Pleasure , at Britannia Row.
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In his book Comfortably Numb , author Mark Blake argues that "Dogs" contains some of David Gilmour's finest work; the song contains notable contributions from Wright, which echo the synthesizer sounds used on the band's previous album, Wish You Were Here.
Of the song's three pigs, the only one directly identified is morality campaigner Mary Whitehouse , who amongst other things is described as a "house-proud town mouse". Towards the end of the song, the eponymous sheep rise up and kill the dogs, but retire back to their homes. Wright played the song's introduction unaccompanied on the electric piano , but did not r. They achieved international acclaim with their psychedelic music.
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Distinguished by their philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, extended compositions, elaborate live shows, they are one of the most commercially successful and influential groups in popular music history. Pink Floyd were founded by students Syd Barrett on guitar and lead vocals , Nick Mason on drums , Roger Waters on bass and vocals, Richard Wright on keyboards and vocals, they gained popularity performing in London's underground music scene during the late s, under Barrett's leadership released two charting singles and a successful debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn.
Guitarist and vocalist David Gilmour joined in December Following creative tensions, Wright left Pink Floyd in , followed by Waters in After nearly two decades of enmity, Gilmour and Mason reunited with Waters in to perform as Pink Floyd in London as part of the global awareness event Live 8. Barrett died in , Wright in ; the last Pink Floyd studio album, The Endless River , was recorded without Waters and based entirely on unreleased material from The Division Bell recording sessions. By , they had sold more than million records worldwide. Richard Wright, a fellow architecture student, joined that year, the group became a sextet, Sigma 6.
Waters played lead guitar, Mason drums, Wright rhythm guitar; the band performed at private functions and rehearsed in a tearoom in the basement of the Regent Street Polytechnic.
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They performed songs by the Searchers and material written by their manager and songwriter , fellow student Ken Chapman. Mason moved out after the academic year, guitarist Bob Klose moved in during September , prompting Waters' switch to bass. Barrett, two years younger, had moved to London in to study at the Camberwell College of Arts.
Waters and Barrett were childhood friends. Mason said about Barrett: "In a period when everyone was being cool in a adolescent, self-conscious way, Syd was unfashionably outgoing. In December , they secured their first recording time, at a studio in West Hampstead , through one of Wright's friends, who let them use some down time free. Wright, taking a break from his studies, did not participate in the session; when the RAF assigned Dennis a post in Bahrain in early , Barrett became the band's frontman.
That year, they became the resident band at the Countdown Club near Kensington High Street in London , where from late night until early morning they played three sets of 90 minutes each. During this period, spurred by the group's need to extend their sets to minimise song repetition, the band realised that "songs could be extended with lengthy solos", wrote Mason. After pressure from his parents and advice from his college tutors, Klose quit the band in mid and Barrett took over lead guitar. The group first referred to themselves as the Pink Floyd Sound in late Barrett created the name on the spur of the moment when he discovered that another band called the Tea Set, were to perform at one of their gigs; the name is derived from the given names of two blues musicians whose Piedmont blues records Barrett had in his collection, Pink Anderson and Floyd Council.
By , the group's repertoire consisted of rhythm and blues songs and they had begun to receive paid bookings, including a performance at the Marquee Club in March , where Peter Jenner , a lecturer at the London School of Economics , noticed them. Mason is the only Pink Floyd member to have been featured on all of their studio albums, the only constant member of the band since its formation in , it is estimated that as of , the group have sold over million records worldwide, including 75 million units sold in the United States.
Despite writing only a few Pink Floyd songs, Mason has co-written some of Pink Floyd's most popular compositions such as "Echoes" and "Time", he collects classic drives competitively. Mason has been the drummer on every Pink Floyd album. In live performances of the song "Sheep", he did the spoken section. Despite legal conflicts over ownership of the name'Pink Floyd', which began when Waters left the group in and lasted seven years and Nick Mason are as of on good terms.
Mason joined Waters on the last two nights of his world tour to play drums on the Pink Floyd song "Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun ", he played drums on some concerts of Waters' European tour in , during performances in Los Angeles and New York City in the United States.
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In July , Gilmour and Waters played together on stage for the first time in 24 years. A four-song set was played at the Live 8 concert in London. Mason has claimed to be the link between Gilmour and Waters, believes the band will play live again, mentioning the possibility of "playing again for a charitable cause" or "a tour" in various interviews in the last few years, he stated in that Pink Floyd had not disbanded yet, but with the death of Wright in , the band came to an end as confirmed by Gilmour.
In spite of this, Mason has continued to join Waters onstage on occasion. Again, on 12 May , Mason was featured on the encore " Outside the Wall " at a concert by Waters, performing The Wall in its entirety. Unlike the other members of Pink Floyd, Mason has played an instrument other than his drum kit or large array of percussion instruments, although he has utilised tapes and contributed sound effects to many Pink Floyd albums. He has only played non-percussive instruments on "The Grand Vizier's Garden Party", his personal composition from Ummagumma , where he used a mellotron to play brief melodies and create ambient noises, on " Jugband Blues ", where he played kazoo , on live versions of "Outside the Wall", where he played acoustic guitar along with the rest of the band.
However, on the Profiles album Mason released with Rick Fenn in , he is credited with keyboards , he can be seen playing a vibraphone in the promo video for "Lie for a Lie", but it is unknown if he played on the recording. Mason has said that he took some failed piano and violin lessons as a child before taking up drums. Mason has worked with other musicians, notably as a drummer and producer for Steve Hillage , Robert Wyatt , the Damned and Gong, he drummed for Michael Mantler. An updated edition was published, in paperback , in He performed in the closing ceremony of the Olympic Games on 12 August The band includes David Gilmour bass player Guy Pratt ; the band will focus on performing tracks from Pink Floyd's embryonic years of Musical composition Musical composition, or composition, can refer to an original piece or work of music, either vocal or instrumental, the structure of a musical piece, or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music.
People who create new compositions are called composers. Composers of songs are called songwriters. In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music "score,", performed by the composer or by other instrumental musicians or singers.
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In popular music and traditional music, songwriting may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet, which sets out the melody and chord progression. In classical music, orchestration is done by the composer, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration. In jazz and popular music, notable sound recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written or printed scores play in classical music.
Although a musical composition uses musical notation and has a single author, this is not always the case. A work of music can have multiple composers, which occurs in popular music when all of the members of a band collaborates to write a song, or in musical theatre, when one person writes the melodies, a second person writes the lyrics, a third person orchestrates the songs.
A piece of music can be composed with words, images, or, since the 20th century, with computer programs that explain or notate how the singer or musician should create musical sounds. Examples range from 20th century avant-garde music that uses graphic notation, to text compositions such as Karlheinz Stockhausen's Aus den sieben Tagen , to computer programs that select sounds for musical pieces. A more known example of chance-based music is the sound of wind chimes jingling in a breeze.
The study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include the creation of popular music and traditional music songs and instrumental pieces, to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African percussionists such as Ewe drummers. Although in the s, composition is considered to consist of the manipulation of each aspect of music, according to Jean-Benjamin de Laborde: Composition consists in two things only; the first is the ordering and disposing of several sounds This is; the second is the rendering audible of two or more simultaneous sounds in such a manner that their combination is pleasant.
This is what we call harmony, it alone merits the name of composition. Since the invention of sound recording, a classical piece or popular song may exist as a recording. If music is composed before being performed, music can be performed from memory, by reading written musical notation, or through a combination of both methods. For example, the principal cello player in an orchestra may read most of the accompaniment parts in a symphony, where she is playing tutti parts, but memorize an exposed solo, in order to be able to watch the conductor.
Compositions comprise a huge variety of musical elements, which vary from between genres and cultures. Popular music genres after about make extensive use of electric and electronic instruments, such as electric guitar and electric bass. Electric and electronic instruments are used in contemporary classical music compositions and concerts, albeit to a lesser degree than in popular music. Music from the Baroque music era, for example, used only acoustic and mechanical instruments such as strings, woodwinds and keyboard instruments such as harpsichord and pipe organ.
A s-era pop band may use electric guitar played with electronic effects through a guitar amplifier, a digital synthesizer keyboard and electronic drums. Piece is a "general, non-technical term applied to instrumental compositions from the 17th century onwards In vocal music Sometimes, the entire form of a piece is through-composed , meaning that each part is different, with no repetition of sections; some pieces are composed around a set scale, where the compositional technique might be considered the usage of a particular scale.
Others are composed during performance, where a v. Effects unit An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source. Most modern effects use solid-state electronics or computer chips; some effects older ones such as Leslie speakers and spring reverbs , use mechanical components or vacuum tubes. Effects are used as stompboxes , which are placed on the floor and controlled with footswitches, they are built into amplifiers, tabletop units designed for DJs and record producers, rackmounts, are used as software VSTs.
Musicians, audio engineers and record producers use effects units during live performances or in the studio with electric guitar, bass guitar, electronic keyboard or electric piano. While guitar effects are most used with electric or electronic instruments, effects can be used with acoustic instruments and vocals. An effects unit is called an "effect box", "effects device", "effects processor" or "effects". In audio engineer parlance, a signal without effects is "dry" and an effect-processed signal is "wet". A pedal-style unit may be called a "stomp box", " stompbox ", "effects pedal" or "pedal".
A musician bringing many pedals to a live show or recording session mounts the pedals on a guitar pedalboard , to reduce set-up and tear-down time and, for pedalboards with lids, protect the pedals during transportation; when a musician has multiple effects in a rack mounted road case, this case may be called an "effects rack" or "rig".
When rackmounted effects are mounted in a roadcase, this speeds up a musician's set-up and tear-down time, because all of the effects can be connected together inside the rack case and all of the units can be plugged into a powerbar. Effects units are available in a variety of formats or form factors. Stompboxes are used units in live performance and studio recordings. Rackmount devices saw a heavy usage during the 20th century, due to their advanced processing power and desirable tones. However, by the 21st century, with the advant of digital Plug-Ins and more powerful Stompboxes for live usage, the need and practicality of rackmounted effects units went down, as such, prices of rack effects have diminished due to lower usage.
An effects unit can consist of a combination of the two. During a live performance, the effect is plugged into the electrical "signal" path of the instrument. In the studio, the instrument or other sound-source's auxiliary output is patched into the effect. Form factors are part of musician's outboard gear. Stompboxes are small plastic or metal chassis which lie on the floor or in a pedalboard to be operated by the user's feet.
Pedals are rectangle-shaped, but there are a range of other shapes. Typical simple stompboxes have a single footswitch, one to three potentiometers for controlling the effect, a single LED that indicates if the effect is on. A typical distortion or overdrive pedal's three potentiometers, for example, control the level or intensity of the distortion effect, the tone of the effected signal and the volume of the effected signal.
Depending on the type of pedal, the potentiometers may control different parameters of the effect. For a chorus effect, for example, the knobs may control the speed of the effect. Complex stompboxes may have multiple footswitches, many knobs, additional switches or buttons that are operated with the fingers, an alphanumeric LED display that indicates the status of the effect with short acronyms; some pedals have two knobs stacked on top of each other, enabling the unit to provide two knobs per single knob space.
An "effects chain" or "signal chain" is formed by connecting two or more stompboxes. Effect chains are created between the guitar and the amp or between the preamplifier and the power amp; when a pedal is off or inactive, the electric audio signal coming into the pedal diverts onto a bypass, an unaltered "dry" signal that continues on to other effects down the chain. In this way, a musician can combine effects within a chain in a variety of ways without having to reconnect boxes during a performance.
A "controller" or "effects management system" lets the musician create multiple effect chains, so they can select one or several chains by tapping a single switch. The switches are organized in a row or a simple grid. To preserve the clarity of the tone, it is most common to put compression and overdrive pedals at the start of the chain; when using many effects, unwanted noise and hum can be introduced into the sound. Some performers use a noise gate pedal at the end of a chain to reduce unwanted noise and hum introduced by overdrive units or vintage gear.
Rackmounted effects are built in a thin metal chassis with metal "ears" designed to be screwed into a inch rack, standard to the telecommunication and music technology industries. Rackmounted effects may be two or three rack spaces high; when purchased from the store, rack-mounted equipment is not equipped with the rugged chassis features used on.
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This section needs additional citations for verification. Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 27 July The Independent. Retrieved 17 August London: Plexus Publishing Limited. Oxford University Press. Sono finiti " ". Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved The Source Radio Show. Archived from the original on 11 September Pink Floyd — Uncensored on the Record. Coda Books Ltd. Pink Floyd News Resource. Retrieved 5 September As far as the Floyd selection here, not a bad choice - a nice performance of "Shine On", with a lovely solo from the Dutch saxophonist Candy Dulfer, and "Run Like Hell", which ended the concert.
Retrieved 30 June Pink Floyd.
Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 20 June BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 17 October Wish You Were Here. The Wall Live — The Wall The Final Cut. Live at the Empire Pool. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from December Articles with permanently dead external links CS1 maint: Archived copy as title Articles needing additional references from May All articles needing additional references Articles with hAudio microformats Articles that may contain original research from April All articles that may contain original research All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from February Articles needing additional references from June Use dmy dates from April Revision History.
Abbey Road Studios. Related Images. YouTube Videos. They achieved international acclaim with their progressive and psychedelic music. Pink Floyd in January , one of the only known photoshoots of all five members. Part of the Warner Bros. Mono Lake in California. Progressive rock is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late s.
The Beatles working in the studio with their producer George Martin , circa Original home of Columbia in Washington, D. Mark's Square? Although there seemed to be a slight language barrier at first, things took a positive turn as soon as Gilmour said the magic words, "I'll pay you. At the 34 -second mark, the action shifts to St. Mark's Square, where Gilmour warms up on acoustic guitar as locals watch from behind a barrier.
At the 55 -second mark, we see that it's pouring; it actually rained for hours before the gig and didn't stop till the show's intermission. At , we briefly see Pink Floyd keyboardist Richard Wright who died two years later at age Finally, at , Gilmour introduces his new temporary bandmate: "He plays in the streets of Venice for you every day. He's going to play
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